## Wednesday, 23 May 2012

### Higgs Boson Exponential Integrals

I would like to introduce you to Higgs boson exponential integrals, they are as follow:

Elemental Analysis:

1- The area 0 to +2 is the half area where all kind of radioactive decay occurs.

2- All values in the exponential plot are linear.

3- The axis 0 to 12 represents time which is 12 months.

4- The axis 0 to 0.50 represents half decay.

5- The surface 1 is the exponential area.

6- ln: is the natural logarithm in which the base is the irrational number e (= 2.71828 . . . ).The natural logarithm is generally written as ln(x), loge(x) or sometimes, if the base of e is implicit, as simply log(x).

7- lim: In mathematics, the concept of a "limit" is used to describe the value that a function or sequence "approaches" as the input or index approaches some value.

8- Faraday's 2nd Law of Electrolysis: For a given quantity of electricity (electric charge), the mass of an elemental material altered at an electrode is directly proportional to the element's equivalent weight. The equivalent weight of a substance is its molar mass divided by an integer that depends on the reaction undergone by the material.

9- Infinity: (symbol: ∞) denotes a positive + or a negative -∞ unbounded limit.

10- Injection: Let f be a function whose domain is a set A. The function f is injective if for all a and b in A, if f(a) = f(b), then a = b; that is, f(a) = f(b) implies a =b.  Equivalently, if a ≠ b, then f(a) ≠ f(b).

11- Subjection: All the integrals are in a state of dependency; they rely on each other.
12- Frequency:  Is the number of occurrences within a given time period (12 months).

13- Substitution: Is the uniform replacement of one expression by another.
14- Capacity: Is the ability to hold a fluid, very similar to volume.

15- Mathematical model: Is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modelling.

16- Predominantly: Much greater in number and influence.

## Tuesday, 15 May 2012

### Higgs Boson Chemical Elements Equations

In the hypothesis of the last post “Higgs boson manifesto”, we understood that Higgs boson appears in addition polymer of the Rugosa corals as a chromosome which interacts with a phonon and an antiparticle (dark matter) to create a nanoparticle (matter).

## Sunday, 6 May 2012

### Higgs Boson Manifesto

A Bio production of Bio-Plutonium, Bio-Helium and Bio-Barium is possible by using Rugosa Corals as a generator to decay atoms and rebuilding them into other kind of atoms. An understanding to the origins of this production and their relation to Bio nuclear energy is the subject of this post.

1-      FROM SURFACE TO (rRNA)

1- Surface Science: The science encompasses concepts such as heterogeneous catalysis
2- Heterogeneous Catalysis: Refers to the form of catalysis
3- Catalysis: Is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst
4- RNA: Is able both to store genetic information, like DNA, and to catalyze chemical reactions, like an enzyme protein
5- A few RNA molecules called ribozymes also catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome
6- Ribosomes: Have been classified as ribozymes, because the ribosomal RNA seems to be most important for the peptidyl transferase activity that links amino acids together
7Peptidyl transferase activity: Is carried out by the ribosome. Peptidyl transferase activity is not mediated by any ribosomal proteins but by ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

2- RUGOSA CORALS POLYMER

1-       Interlocutor: Reaction to acoustic waves
2-       Interactive: Gene/protein interaction
3-       Linear: In which the molecules form long chains without branches or cross-linked structures.
4-       Natural: Not synthetic
5-       Purposeful: Having a definite purpose in view
6-       Coincidable:  Able to correspond in nature
7-       Impermeable: Not allowing fluid to pass through
8-       Distensible: Capable of being distended; able to stretch and expand
9-       Catalyst: Participate in multiple chemical transformations

3- RUGOSA CORALS MANOMER

1- Addition Polymer: Is a polymer which is formed by an addition reaction, where many monomers bond together via rearrangement of bonds without the loss of any atom or molecule.
1-1 Monomer: Is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer. The term "monomeric protein" may also be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex
1-2 Monomeric Protein: The term "monomeric protein" may also be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex
1-3 Amino acids: Are natural monomers that polymerize at ribosomes to form proteins. Nucleotides, monomers found in the cell nucleus, polymerize to form nucleic acids- DNA and RNA.
1-4 Glucose Monomers: Can polymerize to form starches, glycogen or cellulose; xylose monomers can polymerise to form xylan. In all these cases, a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl (-OH) group are lost to form H2O, and an oxygen atom links each monomer unit. Due to the formation of water as one of the products, these reactions are known as dehydration or condensation reactions.
1-5 Polymerization: In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer
molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks
1-6 Step-growth Polymerization: Refers to a type of polymerization mechanism in which bi-functional or multifunctional monomers react to form first dimers, then trimers, longer oligomers and eventually long chain polymers. Many naturally occurring and some synthetic polymers are produced by step-growth polymerization.
1-7 Addition Polymerization: "Chain growth polymerization" and addition polymerization (also called polyaddition) are two different concepts. In fact polyurethane polymerizes with addition polymerization (because its polymerization does not produce any small molecules, called "condensate"), but its reaction mechanism is a step-growth polymerization.

2-1 Addition Reaction: In organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one.
2-2 Amino acids: Are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain that is specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are particularly important in biochemistry, where the term usually refers to alpha-amino acids.
2-3 Ribosome: Is a large complex molecule which is responsible for catalyzing the formation of proteins from individual amino acids using messenger RNA as a template. This process is known as translation. Ribosomes are found in all living cells.
2-4 Proteins: Are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function.
2-5 Polypeptide: Is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids; however, in certain organisms the genetic code can includeselenocysteine and in certain archaea-pyrrolysine.
2-6 Sequence or Primary Structure of a Nucleic acid: Is the composition of atoms that make up the nucleic acid and the chemical bonds that bond those atoms. Because nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are unbranched polymers, this specification is equivalent to specifying the sequence of nucleotides that comprise the molecule.
2-7 Catalysis: Is the change in rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of a substance called a catalyst. Unlike other reagents that participate in the chemical reaction, a catalyst is not consumed by the reaction itself. A catalyst may participate in multiple chemical transformations. Catalysts that speed the reaction are called positive catalysts. Substances that slow a catalyst's effect in a chemical reaction are called inhibitors. Substances that increase the activity of catalysts are called promoters, and substances that deactivate catalysts are called catalytic poisons.
2-8 Kinetic Waves: Kinetically, catalytic reactions are typical chemical reactions; the reaction rate depends on the frequency of contact of the reactants in the rate-determining step. Usually, the catalyst participates in this slowest step, and rates are limited by amount of catalyst and its "activity". In heterogeneous catalysis, the diffusion of reagents to the surface and diffusion of products from the surface can be rate determining.
2-8-1 Kinetic Energy: Of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest (Kinetic stability).
2-9 Heterogeneous Catalysis in Chemistry: Refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants. Phase here refers not only to solid, liquid, and gas, but also immiscible liquids, e.g. oil and water. The great majority of practical heterogeneous catalysts are solids and the great majority of reactants are gases or liquids.

4- RUGOSA CORALS METABOLISM

1- Metabolism: Is usually divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration. Anabolism uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

2- Protein Metabolism: Denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids, and the breakdown of proteins (and other large molecules, too) by catabolism.

3- Protein Catabolism: Is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimately for the polymerisation into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribosomes.

4- Metabolic Network: Is the complete set of metabolic and physical processes that determine the physiological and biochemical properties of a cell. As such, these networks comprise the chemical reactions of metabolism as well as the regulatory interactions that guide these reactions.

5- Interaction: Is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect. A closely related term is interconnectivity, which deals with the interactions of interactions within systems: combinations of many simple interactions can lead to surprising emergent phenomena. In molecular biology, the knowledge on gene/protein interaction among themselves and with their metabolites is referred to as molecular pathways.

6- Metabolic Pathways (Biochemistry): Are series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. In each pathway, a principal chemical is modified by a series of chemical reactions. Enzymes catalyze these reactions, and often require dietary minerals, vitamins, and other cofactors in order to function properly. Because of the many chemicals (a.k.a. "metabolites") that may be involved, metabolic pathways can be quite elaborate. In addition, numerous distinct pathways co-exist within a cell. This collection of pathways is called the metabolic network.

5- RUGOSA CORALS GENOME

1- Genome: Includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA
1-2 Gene: is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for apolypeptide or for an RNA chain.
When proteins are manufactured, the gene is first copied into RNA as an intermediate product. In other cases, the RNA molecules are the actual functional products. For example, RNAs known as ribozymes are capable of enzymatic function, and microRNA has a regulatory role. The DNA sequences from which such RNAs are transcribed are known as RNA genes.
1- 3 Non-coding RNA (ncRNA): Is a functional RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. Less-frequently used synonyms are non-protein-coding RNA (npcRNA), non-messenger RNA (nmRNA) and functional RNA (fRNA).The term small RNA (sRNA) is often used for short bacterial ncRNAs. The DNA sequence from which a non-coding RNA is transcribed is often called an RNA gene.
Non-coding RNA genes include highly abundant and functionally important RNAs such as transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA),
1- 4 Ribosomal Ribonucleic acid (rRNA): Is the RNA component of the ribosome, the enzyme that is the site of protein synthesis in all living cells. Ribosomal RNA provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and interacts with tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity. The tRNAs bring the necessary amino acids corresponding to the appropriate mRNA codon.
1- 5 Enzymes: Are biological molecules that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates sufficient for life. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.

HYPOTHESIS (THREE IN ONE)

1- Nano-Molecular Microbiology: Is primarily involved in the interactions between the various cell systems of microorganisms including the interrelationship of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis and the manner in which these interactions are regulated.

2- Chromosome: Is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.
2-1 Nano-Optics: Is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
2-2 Nano-Energy: It is a nuclear power energy which occurs during nuclear fission.
2-3 In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission refers to either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releasing a very large amount of energy, even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.
2-4 Nanoparticle: In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties.

3- Eukaryotes: Are (cells with nuclei such as those found in plants, yeast, and animals) possess multiple large linear chromosomes contained in the cell's nucleus.

Under extreme conditions chromosomes within the Rugosa corals interact with Phonons and Antiparticles, all three become adjacent and juxtapose to form Nanoparticles.

Chromosome + Phonon + Antiparticle = Nanoparticle

 RUGOSA CORALS NANO-CHARACTERIZATION Natural: All the process of the production of nanoparticles is made by natural conditions created to the living rugosa corals to produce a particular nanoparticle. Light, temperature and time are the most influential during this process. Fungi: This kind of nanoparticles is fungus, means their cell walls contains chitin. Once combined to form a composite material it produces a much stronger, harder and stiffer than pure chitin. Electronics: Electrons are the base of this kind of nanoparticles Fibers:  They are attached to each other by the covalent bonding. Wet: They are the product of a wet chemistry that means they don't evaporate and they are easy to store.

Definition from Wikipedia