Thursday, 13 December 2012

Higgs Boson The Oscillator

I-                  Introduction

In this post I would like to introduce you to the disinfection of the matrimonial baggers of the Lithuanian microscopic sediments. The essential point in this post is around Higgs boson mechanism;
means how, why, where, and when Higgs boson exercises it's influence on other subatomic particles?

What we already know is; that there are eleven nodes and eleven oscillators driven from the suggested supersymmetry theory which I explained through drawings and definitions published in earlier posts.

In particle physics the most important paradox is the annihilation of particles where quantum and momentum are conserved, the result of this paradox is the genesis of new exotic particles. 

Our subject here is the objection of the insurrection of Higgs boson mechanism. The main cause of the information below; which comes in two parts, a definition and a drawing is to understand the correlation between the properties inside the eleven oscillators.

Believe it or not!! Everything is built on the base of a sinusoidal wave exactly the same as the DNA; meanwhile the conjugation is the perfect key to discover the world of electronics.

Now the resolution is bright and clear to see Higgs boson as an oscillator. Please note that in each time new information is acquired; a definition and a drawing will be added to this post to explain our subject further more. And as long as there is no conclusion yet; this post will be in a state of continuity.

II-              Definitions and Drawings

1- A node: Is a point along a standing wave where the wave has minimal amplitude. For instance, in a vibrating guitar string, the ends of the string are nodes; by changing the position of the end’s node through frets, the guitarist changes the effective length of the vibrating string and thereby the note played. The opposite of a node is an anti-node; a point where the amplitude of the standing wave is a maximum this occurs midway between the nodes.


 2- OscillatorOscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes is used to be synonymous with "oscillation". Oscillations occur not only in physical systems but also in biological systems and in human society.


3- Acceleration:  The special theory of relativity describes the behaviour of objects travelling relatively to other objects at speeds approaching the speed of light in a vacuum. Newtonian mechanics is exactly revealed to be an approximation to reality, valid to great accuracy at lower speeds. As the relevant speeds increase toward the speed of light, acceleration no longer follows classical equations. As speeds approach the speed of light; the acceleration produced by a given force decreases and becomes asymptotically small as light speed is approached; an object with mass can approach this speed asymptotically but never reach it.




4- Energy and Matter, E = MC2: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, and energy in all of it's forms has mass. Mass also can neither be created nor destroyed and in all of it's forms has energy. According to the theory of relativity; mass and energy as commonly understood are two names for the same thing, and neither one is changed nor transformed into the other. Rather, neither one exists without the other existing also, as a property of a system. Rather than mass being changed into energy the view of special relativity is; that rest mass has been changed to a more mobile form of mass, but remains mass. In the transformation process, neither the amount of mass nor the amount of energy changes, since both are properties which are connected to each other via a simple constant.

5- The Sine Wave or Sinusoid: Is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields. The sine wave is important in physics because it retains it's wave shape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase and magnitude. It is the only periodic wave form that has this property. This property leads to it's importance in Fourier analysis and makes it acoustically unique.


6- Quarks Assumption: Is the state of quarks stability due Higgs boson oscillation.




7- Correlation Function: In statistical mechanics is a measure of the order in a system, as characterized by a mathematical correlation function, and describes how microscopic variables at different positions are correlated. In a spin system; it is the thermal average of the scalar product of the spins at two lattice points over all possible orderings.





8 - Free-Energy Relationship or Linear Gibbs Energy Relation: In physical organic chemistry, relates the logarithm of a reaction rate constant or equilibrium constant for one series of reactions with the logarithm of the rate or equilibrium constant for a related series of reactions. Establishing free-energy relationships helps in the understanding of the reaction mechanism for a chemical reaction and allows the prediction of reaction rates and equilibrium constants.



9- Higgs Boson Reconstructions: In addition “I know that the perception of Higgs boson contradictions is influenceable by accuracy; means that the conceptual is perfectionist. As human precision is incapable to detect these occurrences of Higgs boson reconstructions, in spite of all technologies used to understand it, it is still a mystery.” In condition “substrates are subsequent of Higgs boson mechanism; means that the conceptual is definitely right, because instead of limiting the conceptual, a serious investigation of what it has been presented in this blog would be a wise reasoning”.

10- Recreation of the Hypothetical Higgs Boson: We already know that Higgs boson is an insulator (Please check “Ink and Diamond post”), what is fundamental is that the assumption is equal to a sentinel in cryptology. Higgs boson insurrection on physical laws is plausible upon the conjugated systems, where molecules are joined through p-bonding; this explain the insulation of the universe and the existence of holes where electrons, protons and gamma rays are free to travel horizontally and vertically, nothing else is allowed to do so. On my experiment on Rugosa corals (Higgs boson) the production of diamond was possible due the joined gathering of carbon atoms through P-bonding; this represents a conjugated system in itself. The invocation of letter conjugation in Figure (F22a) is a perfect explanation to Higgs boson insurrection and insulation.


11- Higgs Boson Assumptions: Are the states where Higgs boson becomes stable, in the figure bellow we can see (6) forms of assumption representing Higgs boson stability.


12- Higgs Boson Manifesto: Unconditional substrates are the key to innovation; in addition “I think that the conception is a valuable thing, so the interactions of the connected subatomic particles are due to Higgs boson oscillation. The conception is decisive, metamorphic and soluble”.


13- Higgs Boson Decoding: Is a substantial catenation to the aberration of the insulin.


14- Higgs Boson Auto-Destruction:


14- 1 Particle Connection around Higgs Boson: The availability of Higgs Boson is the perfect way to understand it’s destruction; by looking at the graph shown bellow we understand the composition and the manners of the cycle of the particles participating in the destruction of Higgs boson.
The different colours used are taking places to show the connection of these particles around Higgs boson. The list of the particles is indeterminate yet, and is indefinite. As I said my experiment is still live and each time a particle is generated; it’s addition will appear on future graphs. Remember in the super symmetry the particles are spread in latitude and altitude manner.


14-2 Particle Influence on Higgs Boson: Systematic has a grand role in defining the kind of particles which are around Higgs boson. Let’s suggesting that the blue particles are “Mamers”; their number grows from (12) to (48). Now we know that there are (48) different particles under different names and they have different characteristics. Not only that but they can develop to the infinite. In the first case “Bottom left” the commemoration is forbidden as it has a straight link to Higgs boson.


14-3 Particle Presence around Higgs Boson: Particle Presence is an indirect obstacle that permitting innovation of Higgs boson Cycle. The yellow particles shown on the Graph (3) have an indefinite number; their participation in Higgs boson Cycle is imminent, these are called “Yellowish Particles”.




14-4 Particle Physics Manipulation: Is a wonderful era of imagination of Particle Physics beyond humans' knowledge. Thus manufacturing could take a great advantage by opening their pockets in order to substitute the correlation between particle Physics and the industrial world.



14-5 Higgs Boson Arrows: The constitution of Higgs boson is unknown and flat; meanwhile the paparazzi are giants to human eye, the subject here is to suggest the idea of Higgs boson Arrows; they are simple particles with red colour, they are capable to transferee ammunition to the heart of Higgs boson, by this an electromagnetic field is created. I also found that “Reddish” is a suitable name to this kind of particles.






14-6 Higgs Boson Manifestation: Brownish Particles are supposed to be the first in the trinity due to their colour charge.


III     Conclusion

After all what it has been said is just a hypothesis in which the reader may find a work of art. This post comes to it’s end, in consequence by joining the matter at it’s end; accordingly frames are still under observation. The question is; do we require a more sophisticated technology? I suppose yes.









Monday, 27 August 2012

Understandable Matter (BECs Phase 6)

HYPOTHESIS

I would like to say my word to make the cleavage between the known and the unknown of dark matter. Through Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs) Phase (6), I conclude that Dark matter is represented in (3) forms (Majorana fermions, Glueballs and Phosphorus).


In the photographs bellow we can see Majorana fermions and Glueballs generated within the system (BECs) as huge condensate matter.

Majorana fermions and Glue balls

Majorana fermions and Glue balls



Majorana fermions and Glue balls under the High Temperature Superconductor

Definition I

1- Dark matter, in astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is a type of matter hypothesized to account for a large part of the total mass in the universe. Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. Instead, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, and the large scale structure of the universe. Dark matter is estimated to constitute 84% of the matter in the universe and 23% of the mass-energy

According to consensus among cosmologists, dark matter is composed primarily of a new, not yet characterized, type of subatomic particle. The search for this particle, by a variety of means, is one of the major efforts in particle physics today.

Although the existence of dark matter is generally accepted by the mainstream scientific community, several alternative theories have been proposed to try to explain the anomalies for which dark matter is intended to account.

2- Dark Matter Detection

2-1 Direct Detection Experiments

Direct detection experiments typically operate in deep underground laboratories to reduce the background from cosmic rays. These include: the Soudan mine; the SNOLAB underground laboratory at Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy); the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain); the Boulby Underground Laboratory(UK); and the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory, South Dakota (US).

The majority of present experiments use one of two detector technologies: cryogenic detectors, operating at temperatures below 100mK, detect the heat produced when a particle hits an atom in a crystal absorber such as germanium. Noble liquid detectors detect the flash of scintillation light produced by a particle collision in liquid xenon or argon. Cryogenic detector experiments include: CDMS, CRESST, EDELWEISS, and EURECA. Noble liquid experiments include ZEPLIN, XENON, DEAP, ArDM, WARP and LUX. Both of these detector techniques are capable of distinguishing background particles which scatter off electrons, from dark matter particles which scatter off nuclei. Other experiments include SIMPLE and PICASSO.

The DAMA/NaI, DAMA/LIBRA experiments have detected an annual modulation in the event rate, which they claim is due to dark matter particles. (As the Earth orbits the Sun, the velocity of the detector relative to the dark matter halo will vary by a small amount depending on the time of year). This claim is so far unconfirmed and difficult to reconcile with the negative results of other experiments assuming that the WIMP scenario is correct.

Directional detection of dark matter is a search strategy based on the motion of the Solar System around the galactic centre.

By using a low pressure TPC, it is possible to access information on recoiling tracks (3D reconstruction if possible) and to constrain the WIMP-nucleus kinematics. WIMPs coming from the direction in which the Sun is travelling (roughly in the direction of the Cygnus constellation) may then be separated from background noise, which should be isotropic. Directional dark matter experiments include DMTPC, DRIFT, Newage and MIMAC.

On 17 December 2009 CDMS researchers reported two possible WIMP candidate events. They estimate that the probability that these events are due to a known background (neutrons or misidentified beta or gamma events) is 23%, and conclude "this analysis cannot be interpreted as significant evidence for WIMP interactions, but we cannot reject either event as signal."

More recently, on 4 September 2011, researchers using the CRESST detectors presented evidence of 67 collisions occurring in detector crystals from sub-atomic particles, calculating there is a less than 1 in 10,000 chance that all were caused by known sources of interference or contamination. It is quite possible then that many of these collisions were caused by WIMPs, and/or other unknown particles.

2-2 Indirect Detection Experiments

Indirect detection experiments search for the products of WIMP annihilation. If WIMPs are Majorana particles (the particle and antiparticle are the same) then two WIMPs colliding could annihilate to produce gamma rays or particle-antiparticle pairs. This could produce a significant number of gamma rays, antiprotons or positrons in the galactic halo. The detection of such a signal is not conclusive evidence for dark matter, as the production of gamma rays from other sources is not fully understood.
The EGRET gamma ray telescope observed more gamma rays than expected from the Milky Way, but scientists concluded that this was most likely due to an error in estimates of the telescope's sensitivity. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched June 11, 2008, is searching for gamma ray events from dark matter annihilation.

At higher energies, ground-based gamma-ray telescopes have set limits on the annihilation of dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and in clusters of galaxies.
The PAMELA experiment (launched 2006) has detected a larger number of positrons than expected. These extra positrons could be produced by dark matter annihilation, but may also come from pulsars. No excess of anti-protons has been observed.

A few of the WIMPs passing through the Sun or Earth may scatter off atoms and lose energy. This way a large population of WIMPs may accumulate at the centre of these bodies, increasing the chance that two will collide and annihilate. This could produce a distinctive signal in the form of high-energy neutrinos originating from the centre of the Sun or Earth. It is generally considered that the detection of such a signal would be the strongest indirect proof of WIMP dark matter. High-energy neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA, IceCube and ANTARES are searching for this signal.

WIMP annihilation from the Milky Way Galaxy as a whole may also be detected in the form of various annihilation products. The Galactic center is a particularly good place to look because the density of dark matter may be very high there.

Phosphorus is Dark Matter

Phosphorus, is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent non-metal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms white phosphorus and red phosphorus but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.

Phosphorus is essential for most life. As phosphate, it is a component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and also the phospholipids that form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was historically first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. The chief commercial use of phosphorus compounds for production of fertilisers is due to the need to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil.

Definition II

1- Majorana Fermion, also referred to as a majorana particle, or simply, a majorana, is a fermionn that is its own antiparticle. The term is sometimes used in opposition to Dirac fermion, which describes particles that differ from their antiparticles. It is common that boson (such as the photon) are their own antiparticle. It is also quite common that fermions can be their own antiparticle, such as the fermionic quasiparticles in spin-singlet superconductors (where the quasiparticles/Majorana-fermions carry spin-1/2) and in superconductors with spin-orbital coupling, such as iridium, (where the quasiparticles/Majorana-fermions do not carry well defined spins).

2- In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics and following the Pauli Exclusion Principle; fermions include all quarks and leptons, as well as any composite particle made of an odd number of these, such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei. Fermions contrast with bosons which obey Bose–Einstein statistics.

A fermion can be an elementary particle, such as the electron; or it can be a composite particle, such as the proton. The spin-statistics theorem holds that, in any reasonable relativistic quantum field theory, particles with integer spin are bosons, while particles with half-integer spin are fermions.
In contrast to bosons, only one fermion can occupy a particular quantum state at any given time. If more than one fermion occupies the same physical space, at least one property of each fermion, such as its spin, must be different. Fermions are usually associated with matter, whereas bosons are generally force carrier particles; although in the current state of particle physics the distinction between the two concepts is unclear.

The Standard Model recognizes two types of elementary fermions: quarks and leptons. In all, the model distinguishes 24 different fermions: 6 quarks and 6 leptons, each with a corresponding anti-particle.

Composite fermions, such as protons and neutrons, are key building blocks of matter. Weakly interacting fermions can also display bosonic behavior under extreme conditions, such as in superconductivity.

Definition III

1-Glueball, In particle physics, a glueball is a hypothetical composite particle. It consists solely of gluon particles, without valence quarks. Such a state is possible because gluons carry color charge and experience the strong interaction. Glueballs are extremely difficult to identify in particle accelerators, because they mix with ordinary meson states.

Theoretical calculations show that glueballs should exist at energy ranges accessible with current collider technology. However, due to the aforementioned difficulty, they have (as of 2011) so far not been observed and identified with certainty.

2- Gluons, are elementary particles that act as the exchange particles (or gauge bosons) for the strong force between quarks, analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles.

Since quarks make up the baryons and the mesons, and the strong interaction takes place between baryons and mesons, one could say that the color force is the source of the strong interaction, or that the strong interaction is like a residual color force that extends beyond the baryons, for example when protons and neutrons are bound together in a nucleus.

In technical terms, they are vector gauge bosons that mediate strong interactions of quarks in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Unlike the electrically neutral photon of quantum electrodynamics (QED), gluons themselves carry color charge and therefore participate in the strong interaction in addition to mediating it, making QCD significantly harder to analyze than QED.

3- Experiment and Observation, Quarkss and gluons (colored) manifest themselves by fragmenting into more quarks and gluons, which in turn hadronize into normal (colorless) particles, correlated in jets. As shown in 1978 summer conferences the PLUTO experiments at the electron-positron collider DORIS (DESY) reported the first evidence that the hadronic decays of the very narrow resonance Y(9.46) could be interpreted as three-jet event topologies produced by three gluons. Later published analyses by the same experiment confirmed this interpretation and also the spin 1 nature of the gluon (see also the recollection and PLUTO experiments).

In summer 1979 at higher energies at the electron-positron  collider PETRA (DESY) again three-jet topologies were observed, now interpreted as qq gluon bremsstrahlung, now clearly visible, by TASSO, MARK-J and PLUTO experiments (later in 1980 also by JADE). The spin 1 of the gluon was confirmed in 1980 by TASSO and PLUTO experiments (see also the review). In 1991 a subsequent experiment at the LEP storage ring at CERN again confirmed this result.

The gluons play an important role in the elementary strong interactions between quarks and gluons, described by QCD and studied particularly at the electron-proton collider HERA at DESY. The number and momentum distribution of the gluons in the proton (gluon density) have been measured by two experiments, H1 and ZEUS,  in the years 1996 till today (2012). The gluon contribution to the proton spin has been studied by the HERMES experiment at HERA. The gluon density in the photon (when behaving hadronically) has also been measured.

Color confinement is verified by the failure of free quark searches (searches of fractional charges). Quarks are normally produced in pairs (quark + antiquark) to compensate the quantum color and flavor numbers; however at Fermilab single production of top quarks has been shown. No glueball has been demonstrated.

Deconfinement was claimed in 2000 at CERN SPS in heavy-ion collisions, and it implies a new state of matter: quark-gluon plasma, less interacting than in the nucleus, almost as in a liquid. It was found at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven in the years 2004–2010 by four contemporaneous experiments. A quark-gluon plasma state has been confirmed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by the three experiments ALICE, ATLAS and CMS in 2010.

 Definitions are from Wikipedia


Thursday, 23 August 2012

Einstein's Dream

Hypothesis

What we already know is that the created system, Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs) contains (6) Rugosa corals representing Higgs boson and acting as monopoles with (2) north poles, (2) south poles and (2) neutrals.


Pions strangeness (Pion decay) is one of the less observed phenomenon in particle physics. This system; Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs)  is the perfect tool to bring a good opportunity to study this phenomenon. Up to date the product known from this decay is electrons, positrons and electron neutrinos.

This product explains the very high density on the surface of the system. Once the surface is exposed to a source of light, the analyzed interference patterns will explain the electron wave duality, Dalitz pair and pion decay.

Also introducing the double Dalitz Pi neutral (π0) decay mode; to produce the eta (η) and the eta prime meson (η′) as explained in figure (4) and (5).
The Dalitz electron has a vertical half spin, and the positron doesn’t decay. Obviously in figure (4) the decay is shown just for the electron, where one photon (Y) is emitted. The up quark and the anti up quark decay to produce a down quark and an anti down quark.

Two strange quarks and anti strange quarks are added to the existing up and down quarks plus their anti particles; the anti up and anti down.

In figure (5) the eta prime meson is the result of a half horizontal spin of eta meson where we can see a minus of a strange quark and an anti strange quark.

In (F6) the CP violation occurrence within the eta prime meson is apparent at the anti up quark level and at the down quark level this violation could be explained by the charge-transfer complex (CT complex).

(F6) as well explains the Letter Confinement by naming a new quark combined by two quarks, in this case the generation of a charm quark from an up quark and an anti up quark, also a bottom quark from a down quark and an anti down quark.

By following the process of defragmentation, I would like to include (F7) to make a good cleavage between two kinds of mesons; the (D) mesons and the (B) mesons. The wave-particle duality explained by the electron diffraction has a primordial role to the genesis of these mesons, also an explanation to (G) parity.

The Rugosa corals are the perfect still living creatures which allow us to create a “Privileged Local Inertial Frame” (photograph 1), this frame has the fiabilty to make experiments on “Lorentz Invariance” and the “Special Theory of Relativity”. Once we look at figure (8) we automatically understand that the CPT symmetry is perfect.

The right answer to the Electroweak Theory, Gauge Invariance, and the sure Eigenvalues phases in Space-time is explained in (F9) and (F10) and all this is emphasized by (Photograph 2) as we can see the intensity of light made by the electron reflection. 

(F11) Space-time transformation makes the charm quark and the bottom quark observable after their confinement. At this stage, their sequences could be seen just at (360) degrees.


In (F12) the electron is diffracted by a huge source of light to form an integrated circuit by definition, this transformation is a good explanation to understand the Transformation Theory, again we see that letter confinement of the strange quark and the anti strange quark is present. 

(F13) is the last stone to finish the building of the electron, this figure takes us back to the first step of the electron resulted from the Dalitz neutral Pion decay (π0). All the steps of decay and confinement and parities are a good geometrical proof to confirm the Debroglie theory of wave nature of the electron and all matter. Also this is a good proof indicating the incarnation of matter in a new form, such as Higgs boson appearing in the Rugosa corals.

To make further progress an analysis of alpha particles is imminent to the subject; by exposing (F14) we understand that the hypothesized (helium-electron-neutrino) in the earlier post of “Higgs boson discovered (F10d)” produces it’s antiparticle the (helium-electron-antineutrino).

In figure (15) we can see that the (11) alpha particles; which are from helium 1 to helium 11, and the quarks and the anti quarks which their number is (10) to make a total of (21). At this stage a decay occurs for all particles with a half spin right to make the total of all particles (42).

Figure (16) explains alpha particles, quarks, and anti quarks decay; four generations of each particle are generated to make the total to (100) particles.

In figure (17) we can see that Charge, Parity and Time of alpha particles, quarks, anti quarks, Hve and Anti Hve representing a state of inflation and expansion. This is the beginning of the formation of the universe.


Figure (18) is showing how a CP violation occurs to produce D mesons; the charm quark invades the surface occupied by the up quark, down quark and the strange quark. Also that gives an explanation to the starting point of Gauge Transformations. 
 
Figure (19) represents D meson decay which is explained by the Eddington approximation where the decay is in the perpendicular direction. Also the charm quark keeps it's singularity, and has the ability to create a strange quark. The bottom quark and the anti bottom quark appear for the first time on the frame.

Finally my opinion is that geometry and physics are one coin with two faces; it is always possible to make a discovery in physics by using geometry and vice versa, and the work of “Michael Atiyah” is a perfect example. 



BECs Phase (5). Photograph (1)  
(Privileged Local lnertial Frame). 

BECs Phase (5). Electron Reflection (Photograph 2)


Definitions

1- In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.

2- In particle physics, a pion (short for pi meson, denoted with π) is any of three subatomic particles: π0, π+, and π−. Pions are the lightest mesons and they play an important role in explaining the low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force.

2- 1 Pion decays:
The origine of the electron density created on the surface of BECs comes from the pion decay which are as follow

2-1-1 The most common decay mode of a pion, with probability 0.000123, is also a leptonic decay into an electron and the corresponding electron antineutrino. This mode was discovered at CERN in 1958.
π+→e+ + ve
π−→e-+  νe


2-1-2 The Dalitz decay into a photon and an electron–positron pair:

π0 → γ + e- + e+




2-1-3 Also observed, for charged pions only, is the very rare "pion beta decay" (with probability of about 10−8) into a neutral pion plus an electron and electron anti neutrino (or for positive pions, a neutral pion, positron, and electron neutrino).

π+→ π0 + e- +  νe
π− → π0 + e+ + ve


3- In particle physics, strangeness S is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic reactions, which occur in a short period of time.

4- The eta (η) and eta prime meson (η′) are mesonss made of a mixture of up, down and strange quarks and their antiquarks. The charmed eta meson (ηc) and bottom eta meson (ηb) are forms of quarkonium; they have the same spin and parity as the light eta but are made of charm quarks and bottom quarks respectively. The top quark is too heavy to form a similar meson (top eta meson, symbol (ηt)), due to its very fast decay.

Eta meson (η)

 Dalitz electron decays to produce one eta meson and one photon 

Eta prime meson (η′) 
 



 Dalitz electron decays to produce one prime eta meson 

5- In physics, C-symmetry means the symmetry of physical laws under a charge-conjugation transformation. Electromagnetism, gravity and the strong interaction all obey C-symmetry, but weak interactions violate C-symmetry.


6- CP violation 
In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of the postulated CP-symmetry: the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry). CP-symmetry states that the laws of physics should be the same if a particle were interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and then left and right were swapped (P symmetry)

CP violation within the prime eta meson and and letter confinement of quarks


7- Electron diffraction: refers to the wave nature of electrons. However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the resulting interference pattern. This phenomenon is commonly known as the wave-particle duality, which states that the behavior of a particle of matter (in this case the incident electron) can be described by a wave.


The genesis of (D) and (B) mesons

8- CPT symmetry: is a fundamental symmetry of physical laws under transformations that involve the simultaneous inversion of charge, parity, and time.



CPT symmetry

9- The electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction. The theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. they would merge into a single electroweak force.
First, it should exhibit an underlying mathematical symmetry, called gauge invariance, such that the effects of the force are the same at different points in space and time. Second, the theory should be renormalizable; i.e., it should not contain nonphysical infinite quantities.


10- Eigenvalues
All parity transformations have some eigenvalues which are phases other than (±1). In quantum mechanics, spacetime transformations act on quantum states. 






11- An integrated circuit: or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as IC, chip, or microchip) is an electronic circuit manufactured by lithography, or the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. Additional materials are deposited and patterned to form interconnections between semiconductor devices.


12- In quantum mechanics, the concept of matter waves or de Broglie waves reflects the wave–particle duality of matter. The theory was proposed by Louis de Broglie in 1924 in his PhD thesis. The de Broglie relations show that the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum of a particle and is also called de Broglie wavelength. Also the frequency of matter waves, as deduced by de Broglie, is directly proportional to the particle's total energy, i.e. the sum of particle's Kinetic energy and rest energy.




13- Alpha particles: (named after and denoted by the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α) consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus, which is classically produced in the process of alpha decay, but may be produced also in other ways and given the same name. The symbol for the alpha particle is α or α2+, it can be written as He2+, 42He2+ or 42He (as it is possible that the ion gains electrons from the environment; also, electrons are not important in nuclear chemistry).







14- Statistical mechanics of vortex lines
As first discussed by Onsager and Feynman, If the temperature is raised in a superfluid or a superconductor, the vortex loops undergo a second-order phase transition. This happens when the configurational entropy overcomes the Boltzmann factor which suppresses the thermal or heat generation of vortex lines. The lines form a condensate. Since the center of the lines, the vortex cores, are normal liquid or normal conductors, respectively, the condensation transforms the superfluid or superconductor into the normal state. The ensembles of vortex lines and their phase transitions can be described efficiently by a gauge theory.






15 - Intencity (heat transfer)

Spectral intencity. Specific (radiative) intencity. Radiative transfere. The Eddington approximation.The Eddington approximation is a special case of the two stream approximation. It can be used to obtain the spectral radiance in a "plane-parallel" medium (one in which properties only vary in the perpendicular direction) with isotropic frequency-independent scattering. It assumes that the intensity is a linear function.
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Definition from Wikipedia