Tuesday, 26 June 2012

True Bose Einstein Condensate System (Phase 1 and 2)

I- Introduction
A condensate system is a closed system where atoms are grouped in a condensate manner to form matter. The system is formed by seawater in a plastic container, and it becomes closed due the formation of layers of diamond on the top of the seawater. It is known that Diamond is a perfect insulator and a superconductor, the flow of the electrical current is indefinite; this can be explained through the same occurrence of electricity in a dynamo. The temperature of the atoms is in absolute zero (-273.15 degrees) due to the electromagnetic waves created by the magnets which are the Rugosa corals in this experiment. At this stage all atoms achieve the inertial state; means their mass and energy are close to zero, and their velocity becomes very low almost zero. The system achieves it's super fluidity where condensed matter is free to float. During the development of the system; the total mass is diminished by almost 25% due the evaporated oxygen, then most of atoms in the system are hydrogen atoms. Some of them will combine to form diesel and some others to form hydrocarbons as graphene and diamond, and most of the percentage will decay to form the (12) kinds of helium as I explained in earlier post “Higgs boson discovered, Alpha decay”. Most of the unobserved chemical elements will condensate or escape into one of the cited element for example boron will be found within the diamond atoms.  

In other hand sulfur has a great part during the evolution of the system as it is the first element to condensate around the copper wires and the metal plate.
The following equation is an approximation to represent the system before close;
System = (96.5% Sea water) + (3.5% Sea salts) + (6 Rugosa corals)
System = (96.5 % of (Oxygen + Hydrogen)) + (3.5 % of (Chlorine + Sodium + Magnesium + Sulfur + Calcium + Potassium + Bromine + Carbon)) + (6 magnets)
System = (85.84 + 10.82) + (1.94 + 1.08 + 0.1292 + 0.091 + 0.04 + 0.04 + 0.0067 + 0.0028) + (6 Magnets)
During the first day the Rugosa corals are self organized in parallel pairs. From the second day to the 4th day bubbles start to settle around the copper wires that explains the phenomenon of heat occurring within the system. 

Again in this post I would like to bring into the subject important and clear definitions to put the light on the subject, in order to get better understanding of what is a true Boson Einstein Condensate system (BECs).

II- 1 BEC System Gallery Phase1

The photographs bellow are showing BEC system, condensate matter and floating Helium.

1- Irreversible Process: all complex natural processes are irreversible. The phenomenon of irreversibility results from the fact that if a thermodynamic system, which is any system of sufficient complexity, of interacting molecules is brought from one thermodynamic state to another, the configuration or arrangement of the atoms and molecules in the system will change in a way that is not easily predictable. A certain amount of "transformation energy" will be used as the molecules of the "working body" do work on each other when they change from one state to another. During this transformation, there will be a certain amount of heat energy loss or dissipation due to intermolecular friction and collisions; energy that will not be recoverable if the process is reversed.(a)

2- In classical thermodynamics, the concept of entropy is defined phenomenologically by the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated system always increases or remains constant. Thus, entropy is also a measure of the tendency of a process, such as a chemical reaction, to be entropically favored, or to proceed in a particular direction. It determines that thermal energy always flows spontaneously from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature, in the form of heat. These processes reduce the state of order of the initial systems, and therefore entropy is an expression of disorder or randomness. This is the basis of the modern microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics, where entropy is defined as the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its thermodynamic specification. The second law is then a consequence of this definition and the fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics.(a)

3- Hamilton gravitational pendulum: is the value of the Hamiltonian is the total energy of the system being described. For a closed system, it is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy in the system. There is a set of differential equations known as the Hamilton equations which give the time evolution of the system. Hamiltonians can be used to describe such simple systems as a bouncing ball, a pendulum or an oscillating spring in which energy changes from kinetic to potential and back again over time. Hamiltonians can also be employed to model the energy of other more complex dynamic systems such as planetary orbits in celestial mechanics and also in quantum mechanics.(a)

4- Oscillation: is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes is used to be synonymous with "oscillation". Oscillations occur not only in physical systems but also in biological systems and in human society.(a)

5- Monomorphic oscillation: is a natural oscillation which exists in only one form typically in time. 

6- Magnetic monopole: is a hypothetical particle in particle physics that is a magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole. Or vice-versa). In more technical terms, a magnetic monopole would have a net "magnetic charge". Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably the grand unified and superstring theories, which predict their existence. Magnetism in bar magnets and electromagnets does not arise from magnetic monopoles, and in fact there is no conclusive experimental evidence that magnetic monopoles exist at all in the universe.(a)

In contradiction to what it has been said in this definition of magnet monopole, the experiment on the rugosa corals show that they are a perfect magnet monopole which work in pairs to cover north pole and south pole.

7- Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal quantity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the Greek letter σ (sigma), but κ (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or γ gamma, are also occasionally used. Its SI unit is Siemens per meter (Sm−1) and CGSI unit is reciprocal second (s−1).(a)

8- Semiconductor: is the electrical conductivity due to electron flow intermediate in magnitude between that of a conductor and an insulator.(a)

9-In the solid state physics field of semiconductors and insulators, the conduction band is the range of electron energies, higher than that of the valence band, sufficient to free an electron from binding with its individual atom and allow it to move freely within the atomic lattice of the material. Electrons within the conduction band are mobile charge carriers in solids, responsible for conduction of electric currents in metals and other good electrical conductor.(a)

10-Superconductivity: is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic field occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.(a)

11 - In the natural sciences an isolated system is a physical system without any external exchange – neither matter nor energy can enter or exit, but can only move around inside. Truly isolated systems cannot exist in nature, other than possibly the universe itself, and they are thus hypothetical concepts only. It obeys in particular the first of the conservation laws: its total energy - mass stays constant.
This can be contrasted with a closed system, which can exchange energy with its surroundings but not matter, and with an open system, which can exchange both matter and energy. The only truly isolated system is the universe as a whole because, for example, there is always gravity between a system with mass, and masses elsewhere. Real systems may behave nearly as an isolated system for finite (possibly very long) times.(a)

12- Insulation: A true insulator is a material that does not respond to an electric field and completely resists the flow of electric charge. In practice, however, perfect insulators do not exist. Therefore, dielectric materials with high dielectric constants are considered insulators. In insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. These materials are used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation. Their function is to support or separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. The term also refers to insulating supports that attach electric power distribution or transmission conductors to utility or transmission towers.(a)
In this experiment Diamond is formed on the surface horizontally to isolate the system.

13- Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.(a)

14- An atomic orbital: is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term may also refer to the physical region where the electron can be calculated to be, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital.

Atomic orbitals are typically categorized by n, l, and m quantum numbers, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component, respectively. Each orbital is defined by a different set of quantum numbers and contains a maximum of two electrons. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital and f orbital refer to orbitals with angular momentum quantum number l = 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. These names indicate the orbital shape and are used to describe the electron configuration. They are derived from the characteristics of their spectroscopic lines: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental, the rest being named in alphabetical order (omitting j). (a)

15- -P- orbital: At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The p orbital is a dumbbell-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All p orbitals have l = 1, with three possible values for m (-1, 0, +1). The wave function is complex when m = 1 or m = -1.(b)

16- S orbital: At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The s orbital is a spherically-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All s orbitals have l = m = 0, but the value of n can vary. (b)

17- Bose–Einstein Condensate (BEC): is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on macroscopic scale. These effects are called macroscopic quantum phenomena. (a)

18- Thermodynamics: is the branch of natural science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables (such as temperature, entropy, and pressure) that describe average properties of material bodies and radiation, and explains how they are related and by what laws they change with time. Thermodynamics does not describe the microscopic constituents of matter, and its laws can be derived from statistical mechanics.

Much of the empirical content of thermodynamics is contained in its four laws. The first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and thermodynamic work. The second law concerns a quantity called entropy, that expresses limitations, arising from what is known as irreversibility, on the amount of thermodynamic work that can be delivered to an external system by a thermodynamic process.(a)

19- Macroscopic quantum phenomena: usually quantum mechanics deals with matter on the scale of atoms and atomic particles. However, at low temperatures, there are phenomena that are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. The most well-known effects are super fluidity of Helium and Superconductivity which both show spectacular behavior. E.g. in both cases matter can flow with zero flow resistance. In rotating helium so-called quantum vortices are formed which are all equally strong and which can organize in beautiful patterns. A similar effect shows up in superconductors where an applied magnetic field is squeezed in bundles each containing the same amount of magnetic flux. (a)

20- In the field of physics, the study of the causes of motion and changes in motion is dynamics. In other words the study of forces and why objects are in motion. Dynamics includes the study of the effect of torques on motion. These are in contrast to kinetics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of objects without consideration of the causes leading to the motion.

Generally speaking, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter over time and study the causes of those changes. In addition, Isaac Newton established the undergirding physical laws which govern dynamics in physics. By studying his system of mechanics, dynamics can be understood. In particular dynamics is mostly related to Newton's second law of motion. However, all three laws of motion are taken into consideration, because these are interrelated in any given observation or experiment. (a)

IV- Conclusion

The advantage of this experiment is  the super fluid state of the bosonic Helium at temperatures below 2.17 K is true Bose–Einstein condensate, as it happens naturally the Helium condensates at 100%. Also we understand that Alpha particles are emitted by correlation within the closed system.
I think that my experiment could be repeated and studied in deeper way by using advanced means; this will open a new horizon to the quantum physics in particularly and to other science generally.
Rugosa corals are natural magnets with an exceptional magnetism are able to anyone interested to carry on experiments.

(a)    Wikipedia
(b)   http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicmolecularstructure/a/porbital.htm

Monday, 18 June 2012

Ink and Diamond

I- Introduction

I would like to bring a new idea of how is it possible to produce Soft Diamond by using Rugosa corals as living organisms and doing Higgs boson work.

This experiment is an explanation to Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs) theory. Ink and chenille are within the subject as they share the same qualities as Diamond. For the latter by the structural color, and by the interaction of electrons with the molecule with Dyes based ink system. All definitions are from Wikipedia; and their presence within this subject is to clarify the phenomena of this experiment. I also included graphs for physics explanation purpose.

II- Definitions
1- Dyes
The advantage of dye-based ink systems is that the dye molecules interact chemically with other ink ingredients. This means that they can benefit more than pigmented ink from optical brighteners and color-enhancing agents designed to increase the intensity and appearance of dyes. Because dyes get their color from the interaction of electrons in their molecules, the way the electrons can move is determined by the charge and extent of electron delocalization in other ink ingredients. The color emerges as a function of the light energy that falls on the dye. Thus, if an optical brightener or color enhancer absorbs light energy and emits it through or with the dye, the appearance changes, as the spectrum of light re-emitted to the observer changes.

Chenille typically contain structural color.

2- In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a moleculee, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or one covalent bondd. Delocalized electrons are contained within an orbital that extends over several adjacent atoms. Classically, delocalized electrons can be found in conjugated systems and mesoionic compounds. It is increasingly appreciated that electrons in sigma bonding levels are also delocalized. For example, in methane, the bonding electrons are shared by all five atoms equally. Pervasive existence of delocalization is implicit in molecular orbital theory.

3- In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in compounds with alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability. Lone pairs, radicals or carbenium ions may be part of the system. The compound may be cyclic, acyclic, linear or mixed.

4- Conjugation is the overlap of one p-orbital with another across an intervening sigma bond (in larger atoms d-orbitals can be involved).
A conjugated system has a region of overlapping p-orbitals, bridging the interjacent single bonds. They allow a delocalization of pi electrons across all the adjacent aligned p-orbitals.The pi electrons do not belong to a single bond or atom, but rather to a group of atoms. The largest conjugated systems are found in graphite, conductive polymers, and carbon nanotubes.

5- Conductive polymers or, more precisely, intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are organic polymers that conduct electricity. Such compounds may have metallic conductivity or can be semiconductors. The biggest advantage of conductive polymers is their processability, mainly by dispersionn. Conductive polymers are generally not thermoplastics, i.e., they are not thermoformable. But, like insulating polymers, they are organic materials. They can offer high electrical conductivity but do not show similar mechanical properties to other commercially available polymers. The electrical properties can be fine-tuned using the methods of organic synthesis   and by advanced dispersion techniques.

6- The linear-backbone "polymer blacks" (polyacetylenee, polypyrrolee, and polyanilinee) and their copolymers are the main class of conductive polymers. Historically, these are known as melaninss. Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and its soluble derivatives have emerged as the prototypical electroluminescent semiconducting polymers. Today, poly(3-alkylthiophenes) are the archetypical materials for solar cellss and transistors.

7- Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field. This is distinct from black body light emissionn resulting from heat (incandescence), from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescencee), sound (sonoluminescence), or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence).

7-1- Mechanism
Electroluminescence is the result of radiative recombination of electrons and holes in a material, usually a semiconductor. The excited electrons release their energy as photons - light. Prior to recombination, electrons and holes may be separated either by doping the material to form a p-n junction (in semiconductor electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes) or through excitation by impact of high-energy electrons accelerated by a strong electric field (as with the phosphors in electroluminescent displays).

7-2- Examples of electroluminescent materials
Electroluminescent devices are fabricated using either organic or inorganic electroluminescent materials. The active materials are generally semiconductors of wide enough bandwidth to allow exit of the light.
The most typical inorganic thin-film EL (TFEL) is ZnS:Mn with yellow-orange emission. Examples of the range of EL material include:
a- Powdered zinc sulfide doped with copper (producing greenish light) or silver (producingbright blue light)
b- Thin-film zinc sulfide doped with manganese (producing orange-red color)
c- Naturally blue diamond, which includes a trace of boron that acts as a dopant.d- Semiconductors containing Group III and Group V elements, such as indium phosphide (InP), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and gallium nitride (GaN).

8- In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells.

Diamond produced by Rugosa corals

9-Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. It was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8, 1911 in Leiden. Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines, superconductivity is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. It is characterized by the Meissner effect, the complete ejection of magnetic field lines from the interior of the superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting state. The occurrence of the Meissner effect indicates that superconductivity cannot be understood simply as the idealization of perfect conductivity in classical physics.

10- An insulator is a material that does not respond to an electric field and completely resists the flow of electric charge. In practice, however, perfect insulators do not exist. Therefore, dielectric materials with high dielectric constants are considered insulators. In insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. These materials are used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation. Their function is to support or separate electrical conductorss without allowing current through themselves. The term also refers to insulating supports that attach electric power distributionn or transmission conductors to utility poles or transmission towers.

By comparing the result of the experiment and the definitions cited above, Rugosa corals have the ability of creating subatomic particles, means they have the same ability of Higgs boson. In this experiment the production of Diamond is possible. Finally a decision to fund this idea of producing Diamond is imminent. Rugosa corals are ready to introduce to the world renewable energies and innovative technologies as explained in earlier posts. The list of sustainable elements to be produced is long and hope in the future I will have the chance to make more experiments which I will share with you.

Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Available Sustainable Elements

I- Innovative Idea to produce Sulfur, Diesel, Helium, Graphene, and Electricity.

My experiment on the Rugosa corals is showing the possibility of producing
Sulfur, Diesel, Helium, Graphene, and Electricity.
This technique is simple, easy, secure and clean.
The process is cost effective and highly competitive because no energy is used. The expenses are very low presented on seawater, corals, electrical wires, and rolled copper.

A simple prototype to produce Sulfur, Helium, Graphene, Diesel, and Electricity 

Ingredians for the experiment:
- Six rugosa corals.
- A 1.5 liters of sea water.
- A Round plastic container of 2 liters.
- 250 gm of roll copper 16SWG (1.60 mm).
- A 30 cm of electrical wire for general purpose.
- Two Bolts with nuts (4 cm long).
- One metal plate of 4 cm with two holes on the sides

Six Rugosa can produce 6 to 8 grams of sulfur, a 1 liter of diesel and liquid Helium, 2 to 4 mm of Graphene, and electrical energy every 15 days.

Sulfur and Graphene

1.2 mm Graphene under light

II- Definitions

1- Sulfur or sulphur: is the chemical element with atomic number 16. In the periodic table it is represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid when at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant or reducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several non-metals, including carbon, which leads to its negative charge in most organ sulfure compounds, but it reduces several strong oxidants, such as oxygen and fluorine. It is also the lightest element to easily produce stable exceptions to the octet rule.(a)

2- Barley: is a member of the grass family. It is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. (a)
Barley is within the definitions; in order to show how close is to the Sulfur's electrons by the number of its chromosomes.

3- Substrate analogs: (substrate state analogues), are chemical compounds with a chemical structure that resemble the substrate molecule in an enzyme-catalysed chemical reaction.(a)

4-Electrostatic catalysis: Systematic computer simulation studies established that electrostatic effects give, by far, the largest contribution to catalysis. In particular, it has been found that enzyme provides an environment which is more polar than water, and that the ionic transition states are stabilized by fixed dipoles. This is very different from transition state stabilization in water, where the water molecules must pay with "reorganization energy". in order to stabilize ionic and charged states. Thus, the catalysis is associated with the fact that the enzyme polar groups are preorganized. (a)

5- In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyse chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). In the case of a single substrate, the substrate binds with the enzyme active site, and an enzyme-substrates complex is formed. The substrate is transformed into one or more products, which are then released from the active site. The active site is now free to accept another substrate molecule. In the case of more than one substrate, these may bind in a particular order to the active site, before reacting together to produce products. (a)

6- Enzyme catalysis: is the catalysis of chemical reaction by specialized proteins known as enzymes. Catalysis of biochemical reactions in the cell is vital due to the very low reaction rates of the uncatalysed reactions.
The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalyst. By providing an alternative reaction route and by stabilizing intermediates the enzyme reduces the energy required to reach the highest energy transition state of the reaction. The reduction of activation energy (Ea) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product. (a)

7- In organic chemistry a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functions, called hydrocarbyls. 
Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.
The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains. (a)

8- Catenation: is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains. Catenation occurs most readily in carbon, which forms covalent bonds with other carbon atoms to form longer chains and structures. This is the reason for the presence of the vast number of organic compounds in nature. Carbon is most well known for its properties of catenation, with organic chemistry essentially being the study of catenated carbon structures (otherwise known as catenae). However, carbon is by no means the only element capable of forming such catenae, and several other main group elements are capable of forming an expansive range of catenae, including silicon and sulfur.
The ability of an element to catenate is primarily based on the bond energy of the element to itself, which decreases with more diffuse orbitals (those with higher azimuthal quantum number) overlapping to form the bond. Hence, carbon, with the least diffuse valence shell p orbital is capable of forming longer p-p sigma bonded chains of atoms than heavier elements which bond via higher valence shell orbitals. Catenation ability is also influenced by a range of steric and electronic factors, including the electronegativity of the element in question, the molecular orbital hybridization and the ability to form different kinds of covalent bonds. For carbon, the sigma overlap between adjacent atoms is sufficiently strong that perfectly stable chains can be formed. With other elements this was once thought to be extremely difficult in spite of plenty of evidence to the contrary.
The versatile chemistry of elemental sulfur is largely due to catenation. In the native state, sulfur exists as S8 molecules. On heating these rings open and link together giving rise to increasingly long chains, as evidenced by the progressive increase in viscosity as the chains lengthen. Selenium and tellurium also show variants of these structural motifs.(a)

9- Alkanes (also known as paraffins or saturated hydrocarbons) are chemical compounds that consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and are bonded exclusively by single bond (i.e., they are saturated compounds) without any cycles (or loops; i.e., cyclic structure). Alkanes belong to a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ by a constant relative molecular mass of 14. (a)

10- Homogeneity and heterogeneity: are concepts relating to the uniformity or lack thereof in a substance. A material that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character; one that is heterogeneous lacks uniformity in one of these qualities.
The concepts are applicable to every level of complexity, from atoms to populations of animals or people, to galaxies. Hence, a substance may be homogeneous on a larger scale, compared to being heterogeneous on a smaller scale within the same substance. This is known as an effective medium approach, or effective medium approximations. (a)

11- Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.  An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance that its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it. (a)

12- In organic chemistry, electronegativity is associated more with different functional groups than with individual atoms. The terms group electronegativity and substituent electronegativity are used synonymously. However, it is common to distinguish between the inductive effect and the resonance effect, which might be described as σ- and π-electronegativities respectively. There are a number of linear free energy relationships which have been used to quantify these effects, of which the Hammet Equations is the best known. Kabachnik parameters are group electronegativities for use in organophosphorus chemistry. (a)

13- In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.(a)

14- In physical organic chemistry, a free-energy relationship or linear Gibbs energy relation relates the logarithm of a reaction rate constant or equilibrium constant for one series of reactions with the logarithm of the rate or equilibrium constant for a related series of reactions. Establishing free-energy relationships helps in the understanding of the reaction mechanism for a chemical reaction and allows the prediction of reaction rates and equilibrium constants.
The Brønsted catalysis equation describes the relationship between the ionization constant of a series of catalysts and the reaction rate constant for a reaction on which the catalyst operates. The Hammett Equation predicts the equilibrium constant or reaction rate of a reaction from a substituent constant and a reaction type constant. The Edwards Equation relates the nucleophilic power to polarisability and basicity.
It has been suggested that this name should be replaced by linear Gibbs energy relation, but at present there is little sign of acceptance of this change. The area of physical organic chemistry which deals with such relations is commonly referred to as 'Linear Free-Energy Relationships'.
For example, a typical LFER relation for predicting solubility can be defined as follows:
log SP = eE + sS +aA + bB + lL +c

where SP is some free energy related property, such as an adsorption or absorption constant. The lower case letters (e, s, a, b, l) are system constants describing the contribution of the aerosol phase to the sorption process. The capital letters are solute descriptors representing the complementary properties of the compounds. Specifically, L is the gas-liquid partition constant on hexadecane at 298 K; E the excess molar refraction; S the ability of a solute to stabilize a neighbouring dipole by virtue of its capacity for orientation and induction interactions; A the solute’s effective hydrogen bond acidity; and B the solute’s effective hydrogen-bond basicity. The complementary system constants are identified as the contribution from cavity formation and dispersion interactions, l, the contribution from interactions with solute n- or Pi electrons, e, the contribution from dipole-type interactions, s, the contribution from hydrogen-bond basicity (because a basic sorbent will interact with an acidic solute), a, and b the contribution from hydrogen-bond acidity to the transfer of the solute from air to the aerosol phase. (a)

15- Magnetic catalysis: is a phenomenon in quantum field theory which explains a spontaneous breaking of flavor or chiral symmetry, triggered by the presence of an external magnetic field.
General description
The underlying mechanism behind the magnetic catalysis is the dimensional reduction of the low-energy charged spin 1/2 particles and, as a result of such reduction, a strong enhancement of the particle-antiparticle pairing responsible for symmetry breaking. For gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions, such as quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, the dimensional reduction leads to an effective (1+1)-dimensional low-energy dynamics as if the space-time were (1+1)-dimensional. (Here the dimensionality of space-time is written as D+1, where D stands for the number of space-like directions and 1 stands for a single time-like direction.) In simple terms, the dimensional reduction reflects the fact that the motion of charged particles is (partially) restricted in the two space-like directions perperndicular to the magnetic field. However, this orbital motion constraint alone is not sufficient (for example, there is no dimensional reduction for charged scalar particles, carrying spin 0, although their orbital motion is constrained in the same way.) It is also important that fermions have spin 1/2 and, as follows from the Atiyah–Singer index theorem, their lowest Landau level states have an energy independent of the magnetic field. (The corresponding energy vanishes in the case of massless particles.) This is in contrast to the energies in the higher Landau levels, which are proportional to the square root of the magnetic field. Therefore, if the field is sufficiently strong, only the lowest Landau level states are dynamically accessible at low energies. The states in the higher Landau levels decouple and become almost irrelevant. The phenomenon of magnetic catalysis has applications in particle physics, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. (a)

16- The term chiral describes an object, especially a molecule, which has or produces a non-superimposeable mirror image of itself. In chemistry, such a molecule is called an enantiomer or is said to exhibit chirality or enantiomerism. The term "chiral" comes from the Greek word for the human hand, which itself exhibits such non-superimposeability of the left hand precisely over the right. Due to the opposition of the fingers and thumbs, no matter how the two hands are oriented, it is impossible for both hands to exactly coincide. Helices, chiral characteristics (properties), chiral media, order, and symmetry all relate to the concept of left- and right-handedness.(a)

 17- Electromagnetic wave propagation as handedness is wave polarization and described in terms of helicity (occurs as a helix). Polarization of an electromagnetic wave is the property that describes the orientation, i.e., the time-varying, direction (vector), and amplitude of the electric field vector. 
In the image, it can be seen that polarizations are described in terms of the figures traced as a function of time all along the electric field vector. A representation of the electric field, as a vector, is placed onto a fixed plane in space. The plane is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. (a)

18- Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus.(a)

19- In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at a greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies (or resonance frequencies). At these frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations, because the system stores vibrational energy. (a)

20- Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR): is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, which exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space. EMR has both electric and magnetic field components, which stand in a fixed ratio of intensity to each other, and which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation. In vacuum, electromagnetic radiation propagates at a characteristic speed, the speed of light.(a)

21- Oscillation: is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes is used to be synonymous with "oscillation". Oscillations occur not only in physical systems but also in biological systems and in human society.(a)

22- Alpha decay: My explanation of Helium particles is completely different; Hydrogen is the origin of Helium, as I explained it in the post of "Higgs boson discovered" under alpha decay subtitle.

23- Graphene: is an allotrope of carbon. Its structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm, who described single-layer carbon foils in 1962.Graphene is most easily visualized as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds. The crystalline or "flake" form of graphite consists of many graphene sheets stacked together. (a)

24- Quantum Hall effect in graphene: the idea of magnetic catalysis can be used to explain the observation of new quantum Hall plateaus in graphene in strong magnetic fields beyond the standard anomalous sequence at filling factors ν=4(n+½) where n is an integer. The additional quantum Hall plateaus develop at ν=0, ν=±1, ν=±3 and ν=±4.
The mechanism of magnetic catalysis in relativistic-like planar systems such as graphene is very natural. In fact, it was originally proposed for a 2+1 dimensional model, which is almost the same as the low-energy effective theory of graphene written in terms of massless Dirac fermions. In application to a single layer of graphite (i.e., graphene), magnetic catalysis triggers the breakdown of an approximate internal symmetry and, thus, lifts the 4-fold degeneracy of Landau levels. (a)

III – Conclusion
All definitions above are parts to understand the phenomenon which happening during and after the experiment.The subject is not about defining words or expressions. So copying and pasting is a way of sharing information to give better vision to our subject. A double check to this experiment by a laboratory is important to confirm that the production of Sulfur, Diesel, Helium, Graphene, and Electricity is possible by elevating rugosa corals. I do believe that through this experiment, I am bringing sustainable elements which are important to the economies in the world.

(a) Wikipedia