Tuesday, 17 July 2012

Statistical Indifference

Hypothesis

In this post I would like to introduce you to my hypothesis about matter and wavelike particle duality. The principle of the observation of any phenomena as a wave or a particle in quantum mechanics could be done in a different efficient manner.

The quantum mechanics is based on uncertainty and probability principles (operators); let’s say that these principles are not needed any more because the observer has found a perfect tool to measure particles and their waves in their ground state in the same time; once this is achieved then all operators of correspondence will be exhausted.

The answer to how to build a new understanding of quantum mechanics is hidden in the creation of a true Bose Einstein Condensate system (BECs) where Higgs boson (Rugosa corals) is a fundamental element. Particles and their waves are at their inertial state; means their mass, energy and velocity is at a very low unit but not zero and acceleration equals zero. (BECs) is a perfect system where to develop quantum mechanics theories, as natural conditions are created to the observer to make an adequate measurement to the particles and their waves in the same time.

The most serious problem of quantum mechanics is called “wave function collapse” which is not resolved yet, because of the inability to observe this phenomenon directly, and the tools used for this observation destroy the information needed to understand this phenomenon.

The latest innovative technologies are using many kind of materials to develop the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) which is used by researchers in quantum mechanics for experiments. So the solution to quantum mechanics is hidden within the superconductor material used to build the right tools needed.

What we already know from the last post that true Bose Einstein system (BECs) is able to produce a special material which is a high temperature superconductor based on copper oxide, such compounds are the perfect solution to fabricate highly developed tools to make an accurate measurement without uncertainty.

The production of HTS compounds TiCuO, DyCuO and SiCuO which have a crystalline structure of copper oxide superconductors with multi layer planes is a perfect solution to innovate the innovative technologies of the semiconductor industries.

By this occasion I would like to offer samples of (TiCuO, DyCuO, and SiCuO) to companies engaged in the fabrication and design of semiconductor devices to analyze these magnificent superconductor materials.


Photograph showing TiCuO, DyCuO and SiCuO on the surface of  BEC system

Definitions


1- De Broglie “Wave-like- Matter and wave-particle duality”:
"The fundamental idea of [my 1924 thesis] was the following: The fact that, following Einstein's introduction of photons in light waves, one knew that light contains particles which are concentrations of energy incorporated into the wave, suggests that all particles, like the electron, must be transported by a wave into which it is incorporated... My essential idea was to extend to all particles the coexistence of waves and particles discovered by Einstein in 1905 in the case of light and photons." "With every particle of matter with mass m and velocity v a real wave must be 'associated'", related to the momentum by the equation:



where λ  is the wavelength, h is the plank constant, p is the momentum, m is the rest mass, v is the velocity and c is the speed of light in a vacuum."
This theory sets the basis of wave mechanics. It was supported by Einstein, confirmed by the electron diffraction experiments of Davisson and Germer, and generalized by the work of Schrödinger


2- Niels Bohr Complementarity: is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, closely associated with the Copenhagen interpretation . It holds that objects governed by quantum mechanics, when measured, give results that depend inherently upon the type of measuring device used, and must necessarily be described in classical mechanical terms. Further, a full description of a particular type of phenomenon can only be achieved through measurements made in each of the various possible bases — which are thus complementary. The principle was developed and introduced by Niels Bohr in 1927.
Bohr model of atom


3- Werner Heinsenberg  uncertainty principle: is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental lower bound on the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, such as position x and momentum p, can be simultaneously known. The more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa. The original heuristic argument that such a limit should exist was given by Werner Heinsenberg in 1927. A more formal inequality relating the standard deviation of position σx and the standard deviation of momentum σp was derived by Kennard later that year (and independently by Weyl in 1928).

4- Schrödinger's cat: is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin  Schrödinger in 1935. It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects. The scenario presents a cat that might be alive or dead, depending on an earlier random event. Although the original "experiment" was imaginary, similar principles have been researched and used in practical applications. The thought experiment is also often featured in theoretical discussions of the interpretation quantum mechanics. In the course of developing this experiment, Schrödinger coined the term Verschränkung (entanglement).

5- The double-slit experiment: sometimes called Young's experiment, is a demonstration that matter and energy can display characteristics of both waves and particles, and demonstrates the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena. In the basic version of the experiment, a coherent light source such as a laser beam illuminates a thin plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed on a screen behind the plate. The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen, a result that would not be expected if light consisted strictly of particles. However, on the screen, the light is always found to be absorbed as though it were composed of discrete particles or photons. This establishes the principle known as wave-particle duality. Additionally, the detection of individual photons is observed to be inherently probabilistic, which is inexplicable using classical mechanics.




6- The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho). Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume. 

7- Intencity (heat transfer)

Spectral intencity. Specific (radiative) intencity. Radiative transfere. The Eddington approximation. The Eddington approximation is a special case of the two stream approximation. It can be used to obtain the spectral radiance in a "plane-parallel" medium (one in which properties only vary in the perpendicular direction) with isotropic frequency-independent scattering. It assumes that the intensity is a linear function.

8-In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superimpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude. Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency. Interference effects can be observed with all types of waves, for example, light, radio, acoustic, and surface water waves. It is actually a phenomena in which a light wave from two or more openings spaces strikes an opposite surface, the pattern observed is in form of dark and light patches due to the high or low amplitude of light respectively.

8- 1 Mechanism
The principle of superposition waves: states that when two or more waves are incident on the same point, the total displacement at that point is equal to the vector sum of the displacements of the individual waves. If a crest of a wave meets a crest of another wave of the same frequency at the same point, then the magnitude of the displacement is the sum of the individual magnitudes – this is constructive interference. If a crest of one wave meets a trough of another wave then the magnitude of the displacements is equal to the difference in the individual magnitudes – this is known as destructive interference.

Constructive interference occurs when the phase difference between the waves is a multiple of 2π, whereas destructive interference occurs when the difference is π, 3π, 5π, etc. If the difference between the phases is intermediate between these two extremes, then the magnitude of the displacement of the summed waves lies between the minimum and maximum values.

9- In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bounded to an oxygen atom: C=O. It is common to several classes of organic compounds, as part of many larger functional groups.
The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl , e.g. nickel carbonyl).

10- Diploid (indicated by 2n = 2x) cells have two homologous copies of each chromosome, usually one from the mother and one from the father. Nearly all mammals are diploid organisms (the tetraploid viscacha rats Pipanacoctomys aureus and Tympanoctomys barrerae are the only known exceptions as of 2004), although all individuals have some small fraction of cells that display polyploidy. Human diploid cells have 46 chromosomes and human haploid gametes (egg and sperm) have 23 chromosomes.

Retroviruses that contain two copies of their RNA genome in each viral particle are also said to be diploid. Examples include human foamy virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, and HIV.

11- Polyploidy: is the state where all cells have multiple sets of chromosomes beyond the basic set. For example, in triploids 2n = 3x, and in tetraploids 2n = 4x. The chromosome sets may be from the same species or from closely related species. In the latter case, these are known as allopolyploids (or amphidiploids, which are allopolyploids that behave as if they were normal diploids). Allopolyploids are formed from the hybridization of two separate species. In plants, this probably most often occurs from the pairing of meiotically unreduced gametes, and not by diploid–diploid hybridization followed by chromosome doubling.

12- The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. It typically requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect and modern measurements on paramagnetic materials are often conducted with a SQUID magnetometer.
The magnetic moment: of a magnet is a quantity that determines the force that the magnet can exert on electric currents and the torque that a magnetic field will exert on it. A loop of electric current, a bar magnet, an electron, a molecule, and a planet all have magnetic moments.

13- The magnetic Dipole: both the magnetic moment and magnetic field may be considered to be vectors having a magnitude and direction. The direction of the magnetic moment points from the south to north pole of a magnet. The magnetic field produced by a magnet is proportional to its magnetic moment as well. More precisely, the term magnetic moment normally refers to a system's magnetic dipole moment, which produces the first term in the multi-pole expansion of a general magnetic field. The dipole component of an object's magnetic field is symmetric about the direction of its magnetic dipole moment, and decreases as the inverse cube of the distance from the object.

14- Chemical shift: A spinning charge generates a magnetic field that results in a magnetic moment proportional to the spin. In the presence of an external magnetic field, two spin states exist (for a spin 1/2 nucleus): one spin up and one spin down, where one aligns with the magnetic field and the other opposes it. The difference in energy (ΔE) between the two spin states increases as the strength of the field increases, but this difference is usually very small, leading to the requirement for strong NMR magnets (1-20 T for modern NMR instruments). Irradiation of the sample with energy corresponding to the exact spin state separation of a specific set of nuclei will cause excitation of those set of nuclei in the lower energy state to the higher energy state.

For spin 1/2 nuclei, the energy difference between the two spin states at a given magnetic field strength are proportional to their magnetic moments. However, even if all protons have the same magnetic moments, they do not give resonant signals at the same field/frequency values. This is because this dependent on the electrons surrounding the proton in covalent compounds. Upon application of an external magnetic field, these electrons move in response to the field and generate local magnetic fields that oppose the much stronger applied field. This local field thus "shields" the proton from the applied magnetic field, which must therefore be increased in order to achieve resonance (absorption of rf energy). Such increments are very small, usually in parts per million (ppm). The difference between 2.3487T and 2.3488T is therefore about 42ppm. However a frequency scale is commonly used to designate the NMR signals, even though the spectrometer may operate by sweeping the magnetic field, and thus the 42 ppm is 4200 Hz for a 100 MHz reference frequency (rf).

15- SQUIDs are being used as detectors to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While high field MRI uses precession fields of one to several teslas, SQUID-detected MRI uses measurement fields that lie in the microtesla regime. Since the MRI signal drops off as the square of the magnetic field, a SQUID is used as the detector because of its extreme sensitivity. The SQUID, coupled to a second-order gradiometer and input circuit, along with the application of gradients, are the fundamental entities which allow a research group to retrieve noninvasive images. SQUID-detected MRI has advantages over high field MRI systems, such as the low cost required to build such a system, and its compactness. The principle has been demonstrated by imaging human extremities, and its future application may include tumor screening.

15-1 Device fabrication
The device is typically fabricated by first depositing a thin film of a superconducting metal such as aluminium on an insulating substrate such as siliconProbably the most common commercial use of SQUIDs is in magnetic property measurement systems (MPMS). These are turn-key systems, made by several manufacturers, that measure the magnetic properties of a material sample. This is typically done over a temperature range from that of 4 K to roughly 190 K, though higher temperatures mean less precision.

16- The superconducting tunnel junction: (STJ); also known as a superconductor–insulator–superconductor tunnel junction (SIS); is an electronic device consisting of two superconductor separated by a very thin layer of insulating material. Current passes through the junction via the process of quantum tunnelling. The STJ is a type of Josephson junction, though not all the properties of the STJ are described by the Josephson effect.

17- Quantum tunnelling refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount. This plays an essential role in several physical phenomena, such as the nuclear fusion that occurs in main sequence stars like the sun, and has important applications to modern devices such as the tunnel diode. The effect was predicted in the early 20th century and it's acceptance, as a general physical phenomenon, came mid-century.

Note: Definitions are from Wikipedia







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