Monday, 4 June 2012

Apple and Plutonium

The importance of this post is to make a comparative analysis of Plutonium 260 and Plutonium 274 with Apple.  The half-life time of Pu-260 and Pu-274 will be discussed in future posts.

Definitions

1- Apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). It is one of the most widely cultivatedtree fruits, and the most erwidely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apples grow on small, deciduous trees.

2- The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 centimetres (2.0 to 3.5 in) in diameter. The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds, called pips.



Five leaves and an apple



3- The term gynoecium is useful because it refers to the ovule producing structure in a flower, whether it is a single carpel, multiple unfused carpels or fused carpels.

 4- A carpel is the ovule and seed producing reproductive organ in flowering plants. 

5- In plants, the term locule usually refers to a chamber within an ovary (gynoecium or carpel of the flower and fruits). Depending on the number of locules in the ovary, carpels and fruits can be classified as uni-locular, bi-locular or multi-locular. The locules contain the ovules or seeds. The term may also refer to chambers within anthers containing pollen.

6- Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells).

7- Ovule means "small egg". In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells. 


8-Gamate in Plants which reproduce sexually also have gametes, however, they are produced in the anther  and ovary . They produce pollen  and ovules by meiosis, in a similar way to animals.



9- Haploid number (n) is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells. The haploid gametes produced by (most) diploid organisms are monoploid, and these can combine to form a diploid zygote. For example, most animals are diploid and produce monoploid gametes.

 9-1 Zygote is the initial cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction. In multi-cellular organisms, it is the earliest developmental stage of the embryo. In single-celled organisms, the zygote divides to produce offspring, usually through meiosis.


10- Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a biological cell.

11- Humans are diploid ; A human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes: 2 complete haploid sets, which make up 23 homologous chromosome pairs. However, many organisms have more than two sets of homologous chromosomes and are called polyploid.

12- Most plants and animals are diploid organisms. Their chromosomes come in pairs; each chromosome in a diploid organism has exactly one homologous partner. Each chromosome from these pairs is inherited from a different parent (presuming the organism reproduces sexually from two parents). In fact the chromosomes physically arrange themselves into homologous pairs during meiosis, and divide into monoploid (i.e., haploid) sets when forming gametes.

Note: An apple has 5 carpels with 23 homologous chromosome pairs in each.


13- Plutonium Necleus: Pu-238 has 144 neutrons and 94 protons. The question is where these numbers of neutrons and protons come from? Ok my explanation to the exponential of the cluster of the Pu-238 is as follow:

(23+23) = 46
46 + (23+23+1) = 93+1 =94
94+ (23+23+1) = 141+1 =142
142+ (23+23+1) = 189+1 =190
190+ (23+23+1) = 237+1 =238

Just say that 94 is the number of protons of the first two additions, and the total of the last three additions is 144 which is the number of neutrons. My question is why two to make 94 and three to make 144?

We go back to definitions

14- Lotus is a genus that includes bird's-foot, trefoils and deer vetches and contains many dozens of species distributed world-wide. Depending on the taxonomic authority, roughly between 70 and 150 are accepted. Lotus is a genus of legume and its members are adapted to a wide range of habitats, from coastal environments to high altitudes. Most species have leaves with five leaflets; two of these are at the extreme base of the leaf, with the other three at the tip of a naked midrib. This gives the appearance of a pair of large stipules below a "petiole" bearing a trefoil of three leaflets – in fact the true stipules are minute, soon falling or withering. Some species have pinnate leaves with up to 15 leaflets. The flowers are in clusters of 3-10 together at the apex of a stem with some basal leafy bracts; they are pea-flower shaped, usually vivid yellow, but occasionally orange or red. The seeds develop in three or four straight, strongly diverging pods, which together make a shape reminiscent of the diverging toes of a small bird, leading to the common name "bird's-foot".

1- Five leaflets: this is equal to 5 apple capsule means the addition goes from step 1 to step 5
2- Two leaflet are at the extreme base of the leaf the first two steps with a total 94 Plutonium protons.

14-1 Basal: leaf that grows at the base of an herbaceous plant, often different in size and shape from leaves that grow on the upright flowering

3- The other three leaflet at the tip of a naked midrib; from the 3rd step to the 5th step with a total of 144 neutrons.

14-2 Apical: is the Inhibition of the growth of lateral buds by the terminal bud of a plant shoot. Correlative inhibition of the growth of lateral (auxiliary); shoots exerted by the growing apical bud of the plant stem.The flowers are in clusters of 3-10 together at the apex of a stem with some basal leafy bracts.

Apple leaf and Human hand are very similar





15- Cluster: In physics, the term clusters denotes small, multiatom particles. As a rule of thumb, any particle of somewhere between 3 and 3x107 atoms is considered a cluster.
In chemistry , a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms  intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid . Clusters exist of diverse stoichiometries and nuclearities.
The term can also refer to the organization of protons and neutrons within an atomic nucleus.





16- Colloid: A colloid is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.








16-1 A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) and a continuous phase (or dispersion medium) in which the colloid is dispersed. A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gas.

17- The stability of a colloidal system is the capability of the system to remain as it is; that explain in the apple extreme base of the leaf the two stable and in Pu-238 and its isotopes the 94 protons are stable.

18- Avogadro constant: 6.02214078(18)×1023 mol. In chemistry  and physics , the Avogadro constant (symbols: L, NA) is defined as the ratio of the number of constituent particles N (usually atoms  or molecules ) in a sample to the amount of substance n (unit mole ) through the relationship NA = N/n. Thus, it is the proportionality factor that relates the molar mass of an entity, i.e., the mass per amount of substance , to the mass of said entity. The Avogadro constant expresses the number of elementary entities per mole of substance.

19- Correlation: The correlation coefficient tells us that a relationship exists. The + or - sign indicates the direction of the relationship while the number indicates the magnitude of the relationship. This relationship should not be interpreted as a causal relationship. Variable X is related to variable Y, and may indeed be a good predictor of variable Y, but variable X does not cause variable Y although this is sometimes assumed.

Once we look at Plutonium isotopes from Pu-238 to Pu-244 they are as follow:
Pu-238 neutrons are 144, Pu-239 neutrons are 145, Pu-240 neutrons are 146, Pu-241 neutrons are 147, Pu-242 neutrons are 148… these series are conformable to
Avogadro constant correlation coefficient = 1

The question is what is the number of neutrons Pu-260 and Pu-274? 
In the Lotus genus Pinnate leaves with up to 15 leaflets; means that there is an existence of irregularity.
By adding 1 to Plutonium isotopes and 1 to plutonium neutrons starting from Pu-243 the number of its neutrons 149 and this by adding 1 to the number of neutrons of Pu-242, each time we can increase both sides by 1 up to Pu-260 which has 166 neutrons, and Pu-274 has 180 neutrons.?
We know also from my comments in Bio barium production post; how it is possible to raise the number of electrons in Pu-260 and Pu274.

 “By definition that rugosa corals (Higgs Boson) has: Addition polymer: is a polymer which is formed by an addition reaction, where many monomers bond together via rearrangement of bonds without the loss of any atom or molecule. Electronic structure of Plutonium, The anomalous behavior of Plutonium is caused by its electronic structure. The energy difference between the 6d and 5f sub-shells is very low. The size of the 5f shell is just enough to allow the electrons to form bonds within the lattice, on the very boundary between localized and bonding behavior. The proximity of energy levels leads to multiple low-energy electron configurations with near equal energy levels. This leads to competing 5fn7s2 and 5fn-17s26d1 configurations, which causes the complexity of its chemical behavior. The highly directional nature of 5f orbitals is responsible for directional covalent bonds in molecules and complexes of plutonium.  Now if we look at the 5th orbital of the Pu-242 we find that it has 16 electrons and the 7th orbital has 6 electrons. By addition reaction at the 5th orbital: (16+16 +1) + (32+32+1) + (64+64+1)+ (128+128+1) = 260 electrons; that is Pu 260 By addition reaction at the 7th orbital of Pu-260: (6+6+1) = 13 by adding 1 electron due valence bond theory, the shell orbital is equal to 14, means that Higgs boson is able to produce Pu-274.
My question is why Pu-260 is increased by 18 neutrons and Pu-274 is increased by 32 neutrons?

20- Relativistic quantum chemistry invokes quantum chemical and relativistic mechanical arguments to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for heavy elements of the periodic table.
The term "relativistic effects" was developed in light of the history of quantum mechanics. Initially quantum mechanics was developed without considering the theory of relativity. By convention, "relativistic effects" are those discrepancies between values calculated by models considering and not considering relativity. "Heavy elements" in this context refers to high atomic number elements in the later part of the periodic table where relativistic effects are important.
Relativistic effects in chemistry can be considered to be perturbations, or small corrections, to the non-relativistic theory of chemistry, which is developed from the solutions of the Schrödinger equation. These corrections have differential effects on the electrons in various atomic orbitals within the atom, according to the speed of these electrons relative to the speed of light. Relativistic effects are more prominent in heavy elements, because only in these elements do electrons attain relativistic speeds.

21- Density of being nearer to the nucleus: A nucleus with a large charge will cause an electron to have a high velocity. A higher electron velocity means an increased electron relativistic mass, as a result the electrons will be near the nucleus more of the time and thereby contract the radius for small principal quantum numbers.

22- Emission line is formed when an electron makes a transition from a particular discrete energy level E2 of an atom, to a lower energy level E1, emitting a photon of a particular energy and wavelength. A spectrum of many such photons will show an emission spike at the wavelength associated with these photons.

23-  Emission spectrum of a chemical element  or chemical compound  is the spectrum of frequencies  of electromagnetic radiation  emitted by the element's atoms or the compound's molecules when they are returned to a lower energy state.

Gamma Rays

24- In physics, emission is the process by which a higher energy quantum mechanical state of a particle becomes converted to a lower one through the emission of a photon, resulting in the production of light . The frequency of light emitted is a function of the energy of the transition. Since energy must be conserved, the energy difference between the two states equals the energy carried off by the photon. The energy states of the transitions can lead to emissions over a very large range of frequencies. For example, visible light  is emitted by the coupling of electronic states in atoms and molecules (then the phenomenon is called fluorescence  or phosphorescence ). On the other hand, nuclear shell transitions can emit high energy gamma rays, while nuclear spin transitions emit low energy radio waves.

25- Absorption line is formed when an electron makes a transition from a lower, E1, to a higher discrete energy state, E2, with a photon being absorbed in the process. These absorbed photons generally come from background continuum radiation and a spectrum will show a drop in the continuum radiation at the wavelength associated with the absorbed photons.

26- Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.  Oscillations occur not only in physical systems but also in biological systems and in human society.

27- The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator. Because an arbitrary potential can be approximated as a harmonic potential at the vicinity of a stable equilibrium point, it is one of the most important model systems in quantum mechanics. Furthermore, it is one of the few quantum-mechanical systems for which an exact, analytical solution is known.




28- Driven harmonic oscillators: are damped oscillators further affected by an externally applied force F(t)




29- Fano resonance is a type of resonant scattering phenomenon that gives rise to an asymmetric line-shape. Interference between a background and a resonant scattering process produces the asymmetric line-shape.





30- In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.


31- Graphene is an allotrope of carbon. Its structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded  carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Graphene is a good example of existing dispersed electrons and holes at low energy.

From the above definition that Plutonium electrons are the cause of the appearance of Plutonium protons starting from P-242 which has 148 protons, the election of a proton is made first by the electrons of the fourth orbital which their number is 32 in a parallel position, means Pu-242 become Pu-274, from the third orbital of Pu-242 the 18 electrons elect 18 protons to take parallel position to them, that will be the result of Pu-260. The 8 electrons of the second orbital of the PU-242 elect 8 protons to take a parallel position the result of that is Pu-250.

Gravity

32- Gravitational radiation: whenever two masses orbit each other, the combined effect of the space-time curvature of the moving objects produces gravitational waves which carry away orbital energy. For small masses this effect is negligible, but for very massive objects like black holes and neutron stars the energy carried away can be rapid enough to cause their orbits to spiral in on each other, eventually merging the two masses.

Conclusion

A Bio-production of Plutonium 260 and 274 is possible as long as we have Higgs boson. My explanation above is a good opportunity to develop new concepts in biochemistry. I would like to see Rugosa corals providing the world of botany with expensive information. I recognize that I failed to convince more than 14000 visitors to my blog to co-operate in order to bring more knowledge to the world. Finally, I apply to the appropriate people to accept further researches on my Rugosa corals.
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