Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Available Sustainable Elements

I- Innovative Idea to produce Sulfur, Diesel, Helium, Graphene, and Electricity.

My experiment on the Rugosa corals is showing the possibility of producing
Sulfur, Diesel, Helium, Graphene, and Electricity.
This technique is simple, easy, secure and clean.
The process is cost effective and highly competitive because no energy is used. The expenses are very low presented on seawater, corals, electrical wires, and rolled copper.

A simple prototype to produce Sulfur, Helium, Graphene, Diesel, and Electricity 

Ingredians for the experiment:
- Six rugosa corals.
- A 1.5 liters of sea water.
- A Round plastic container of 2 liters.
- 250 gm of roll copper 16SWG (1.60 mm).
- A 30 cm of electrical wire for general purpose.
- Two Bolts with nuts (4 cm long).
- One metal plate of 4 cm with two holes on the sides

Six Rugosa can produce 6 to 8 grams of sulfur, a 1 liter of diesel and liquid Helium, 2 to 4 mm of Graphene, and electrical energy every 15 days.

Sulfur and Graphene

1.2 mm Graphene under light

II- Definitions

1- Sulfur or sulphur: is the chemical element with atomic number 16. In the periodic table it is represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid when at room temperature. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant or reducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several non-metals, including carbon, which leads to its negative charge in most organ sulfure compounds, but it reduces several strong oxidants, such as oxygen and fluorine. It is also the lightest element to easily produce stable exceptions to the octet rule.(a)

2- Barley: is a member of the grass family. It is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent and is abundant in disturbed habitats, roadsides and orchards. Outside this region, the wild barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. (a)
Barley is within the definitions; in order to show how close is to the Sulfur's electrons by the number of its chromosomes.

3- Substrate analogs: (substrate state analogues), are chemical compounds with a chemical structure that resemble the substrate molecule in an enzyme-catalysed chemical reaction.(a)

4-Electrostatic catalysis: Systematic computer simulation studies established that electrostatic effects give, by far, the largest contribution to catalysis. In particular, it has been found that enzyme provides an environment which is more polar than water, and that the ionic transition states are stabilized by fixed dipoles. This is very different from transition state stabilization in water, where the water molecules must pay with "reorganization energy". in order to stabilize ionic and charged states. Thus, the catalysis is associated with the fact that the enzyme polar groups are preorganized. (a)

5- In biochemistry, a substrate is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts. Enzymes catalyse chemical reactions involving the substrate(s). In the case of a single substrate, the substrate binds with the enzyme active site, and an enzyme-substrates complex is formed. The substrate is transformed into one or more products, which are then released from the active site. The active site is now free to accept another substrate molecule. In the case of more than one substrate, these may bind in a particular order to the active site, before reacting together to produce products. (a)

6- Enzyme catalysis: is the catalysis of chemical reaction by specialized proteins known as enzymes. Catalysis of biochemical reactions in the cell is vital due to the very low reaction rates of the uncatalysed reactions.
The mechanism of enzyme catalysis is similar in principle to other types of chemical catalyst. By providing an alternative reaction route and by stabilizing intermediates the enzyme reduces the energy required to reach the highest energy transition state of the reaction. The reduction of activation energy (Ea) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product. (a)

7- In organic chemistry a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functions, called hydrocarbyls. 
Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.
The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains. (a)

8- Catenation: is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains. Catenation occurs most readily in carbon, which forms covalent bonds with other carbon atoms to form longer chains and structures. This is the reason for the presence of the vast number of organic compounds in nature. Carbon is most well known for its properties of catenation, with organic chemistry essentially being the study of catenated carbon structures (otherwise known as catenae). However, carbon is by no means the only element capable of forming such catenae, and several other main group elements are capable of forming an expansive range of catenae, including silicon and sulfur.
The ability of an element to catenate is primarily based on the bond energy of the element to itself, which decreases with more diffuse orbitals (those with higher azimuthal quantum number) overlapping to form the bond. Hence, carbon, with the least diffuse valence shell p orbital is capable of forming longer p-p sigma bonded chains of atoms than heavier elements which bond via higher valence shell orbitals. Catenation ability is also influenced by a range of steric and electronic factors, including the electronegativity of the element in question, the molecular orbital hybridization and the ability to form different kinds of covalent bonds. For carbon, the sigma overlap between adjacent atoms is sufficiently strong that perfectly stable chains can be formed. With other elements this was once thought to be extremely difficult in spite of plenty of evidence to the contrary.
The versatile chemistry of elemental sulfur is largely due to catenation. In the native state, sulfur exists as S8 molecules. On heating these rings open and link together giving rise to increasingly long chains, as evidenced by the progressive increase in viscosity as the chains lengthen. Selenium and tellurium also show variants of these structural motifs.(a)

9- Alkanes (also known as paraffins or saturated hydrocarbons) are chemical compounds that consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and are bonded exclusively by single bond (i.e., they are saturated compounds) without any cycles (or loops; i.e., cyclic structure). Alkanes belong to a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ by a constant relative molecular mass of 14. (a)

10- Homogeneity and heterogeneity: are concepts relating to the uniformity or lack thereof in a substance. A material that is homogeneous is uniform in composition or character; one that is heterogeneous lacks uniformity in one of these qualities.
The concepts are applicable to every level of complexity, from atoms to populations of animals or people, to galaxies. Hence, a substance may be homogeneous on a larger scale, compared to being heterogeneous on a smaller scale within the same substance. This is known as an effective medium approach, or effective medium approximations. (a)

11- Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.  An atom's electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number and the distance that its valence electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts electrons towards it. (a)

12- In organic chemistry, electronegativity is associated more with different functional groups than with individual atoms. The terms group electronegativity and substituent electronegativity are used synonymously. However, it is common to distinguish between the inductive effect and the resonance effect, which might be described as σ- and π-electronegativities respectively. There are a number of linear free energy relationships which have been used to quantify these effects, of which the Hammet Equations is the best known. Kabachnik parameters are group electronegativities for use in organophosphorus chemistry. (a)

13- In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. These orbitals share a nodal plane which passes through both of the involved nuclei.(a)

14- In physical organic chemistry, a free-energy relationship or linear Gibbs energy relation relates the logarithm of a reaction rate constant or equilibrium constant for one series of reactions with the logarithm of the rate or equilibrium constant for a related series of reactions. Establishing free-energy relationships helps in the understanding of the reaction mechanism for a chemical reaction and allows the prediction of reaction rates and equilibrium constants.
The Brønsted catalysis equation describes the relationship between the ionization constant of a series of catalysts and the reaction rate constant for a reaction on which the catalyst operates. The Hammett Equation predicts the equilibrium constant or reaction rate of a reaction from a substituent constant and a reaction type constant. The Edwards Equation relates the nucleophilic power to polarisability and basicity.
It has been suggested that this name should be replaced by linear Gibbs energy relation, but at present there is little sign of acceptance of this change. The area of physical organic chemistry which deals with such relations is commonly referred to as 'Linear Free-Energy Relationships'.
For example, a typical LFER relation for predicting solubility can be defined as follows:
log SP = eE + sS +aA + bB + lL +c

where SP is some free energy related property, such as an adsorption or absorption constant. The lower case letters (e, s, a, b, l) are system constants describing the contribution of the aerosol phase to the sorption process. The capital letters are solute descriptors representing the complementary properties of the compounds. Specifically, L is the gas-liquid partition constant on hexadecane at 298 K; E the excess molar refraction; S the ability of a solute to stabilize a neighbouring dipole by virtue of its capacity for orientation and induction interactions; A the solute’s effective hydrogen bond acidity; and B the solute’s effective hydrogen-bond basicity. The complementary system constants are identified as the contribution from cavity formation and dispersion interactions, l, the contribution from interactions with solute n- or Pi electrons, e, the contribution from dipole-type interactions, s, the contribution from hydrogen-bond basicity (because a basic sorbent will interact with an acidic solute), a, and b the contribution from hydrogen-bond acidity to the transfer of the solute from air to the aerosol phase. (a)

15- Magnetic catalysis: is a phenomenon in quantum field theory which explains a spontaneous breaking of flavor or chiral symmetry, triggered by the presence of an external magnetic field.
General description
The underlying mechanism behind the magnetic catalysis is the dimensional reduction of the low-energy charged spin 1/2 particles and, as a result of such reduction, a strong enhancement of the particle-antiparticle pairing responsible for symmetry breaking. For gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions, such as quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, the dimensional reduction leads to an effective (1+1)-dimensional low-energy dynamics as if the space-time were (1+1)-dimensional. (Here the dimensionality of space-time is written as D+1, where D stands for the number of space-like directions and 1 stands for a single time-like direction.) In simple terms, the dimensional reduction reflects the fact that the motion of charged particles is (partially) restricted in the two space-like directions perperndicular to the magnetic field. However, this orbital motion constraint alone is not sufficient (for example, there is no dimensional reduction for charged scalar particles, carrying spin 0, although their orbital motion is constrained in the same way.) It is also important that fermions have spin 1/2 and, as follows from the Atiyah–Singer index theorem, their lowest Landau level states have an energy independent of the magnetic field. (The corresponding energy vanishes in the case of massless particles.) This is in contrast to the energies in the higher Landau levels, which are proportional to the square root of the magnetic field. Therefore, if the field is sufficiently strong, only the lowest Landau level states are dynamically accessible at low energies. The states in the higher Landau levels decouple and become almost irrelevant. The phenomenon of magnetic catalysis has applications in particle physics, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. (a)

16- The term chiral describes an object, especially a molecule, which has or produces a non-superimposeable mirror image of itself. In chemistry, such a molecule is called an enantiomer or is said to exhibit chirality or enantiomerism. The term "chiral" comes from the Greek word for the human hand, which itself exhibits such non-superimposeability of the left hand precisely over the right. Due to the opposition of the fingers and thumbs, no matter how the two hands are oriented, it is impossible for both hands to exactly coincide. Helices, chiral characteristics (properties), chiral media, order, and symmetry all relate to the concept of left- and right-handedness.(a)

 17- Electromagnetic wave propagation as handedness is wave polarization and described in terms of helicity (occurs as a helix). Polarization of an electromagnetic wave is the property that describes the orientation, i.e., the time-varying, direction (vector), and amplitude of the electric field vector. 
In the image, it can be seen that polarizations are described in terms of the figures traced as a function of time all along the electric field vector. A representation of the electric field, as a vector, is placed onto a fixed plane in space. The plane is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. (a)

18- Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus.(a)

19- In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at a greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies (or resonance frequencies). At these frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude oscillations, because the system stores vibrational energy. (a)

20- Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR): is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, which exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space. EMR has both electric and magnetic field components, which stand in a fixed ratio of intensity to each other, and which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation. In vacuum, electromagnetic radiation propagates at a characteristic speed, the speed of light.(a)

21- Oscillation: is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes is used to be synonymous with "oscillation". Oscillations occur not only in physical systems but also in biological systems and in human society.(a)

22- Alpha decay: My explanation of Helium particles is completely different; Hydrogen is the origin of Helium, as I explained it in the post of "Higgs boson discovered" under alpha decay subtitle.

23- Graphene: is an allotrope of carbon. Its structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm, who described single-layer carbon foils in 1962.Graphene is most easily visualized as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds. The crystalline or "flake" form of graphite consists of many graphene sheets stacked together. (a)

24- Quantum Hall effect in graphene: the idea of magnetic catalysis can be used to explain the observation of new quantum Hall plateaus in graphene in strong magnetic fields beyond the standard anomalous sequence at filling factors ν=4(n+½) where n is an integer. The additional quantum Hall plateaus develop at ν=0, ν=±1, ν=±3 and ν=±4.
The mechanism of magnetic catalysis in relativistic-like planar systems such as graphene is very natural. In fact, it was originally proposed for a 2+1 dimensional model, which is almost the same as the low-energy effective theory of graphene written in terms of massless Dirac fermions. In application to a single layer of graphite (i.e., graphene), magnetic catalysis triggers the breakdown of an approximate internal symmetry and, thus, lifts the 4-fold degeneracy of Landau levels. (a)

III – Conclusion
All definitions above are parts to understand the phenomenon which happening during and after the experiment.The subject is not about defining words or expressions. So copying and pasting is a way of sharing information to give better vision to our subject. A double check to this experiment by a laboratory is important to confirm that the production of Sulfur, Diesel, Helium, Graphene, and Electricity is possible by elevating rugosa corals. I do believe that through this experiment, I am bringing sustainable elements which are important to the economies in the world.

(a) Wikipedia
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