Wednesday, 6 June 2012

Wheat and Plutonium

As I promised in "Apple and Plutonium" post; to make a deep vision about the calculation of the half-life of Plutonium 260 and Plutonium 274. The prediction of the half life of the plutonium (Pu260 and Pu274) is based on a comparison with wheat chromosomes.

I- Definitions
1- Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East and Ethiopian Highlands, but now is cultivated worldwide. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other commercial crop and is the most important staple food for humans. 
Recent findings narrow the first domestication of wheat down to a small region of southeastern Turkey, and domesticated Einkorn wheat at Nevalı Çori—40 miles (64 km) northwest of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey—has been dated to 9,000 B.C. However evidence for the exploitation of wild barley has been dated to 23,000 B.C. and some say this is also true of pre-domesticated wheat.

1-1 An Ear is the grain-bearing tip part of the stem of a cereal plant, such as wheat or maize. It can also refer to "a prominent lobe in some leaves". The ear is a spike, consisting of a central stem on which grows tightly packed rows of flowers. These develop into fruits containing the edible seeds.

1-2 A stalk is the stem or main axis of a plant; as, a stalk of wheat, rye, or oats; the stalks of maize or hemp.

 2- Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species. Some wheat species are:

2-1 Diploid Cells of the diploid wheats each contain 2 complements of 7 chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father (2n=14, where 2n is the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell, and x is the basic chromosome number).

2-2 Tetraploid: Most tetraploid wheats are derived from wild emmer. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses. The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection. (4 sets of chromosomes, 4n=28).

2-3 Hexaploid: wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. These have three sets of paired chromosomes, three times as many as in diploid wheat.  (6 sets of chromosomes, 6n=42).                                      

3- Wheat Lodging occurs when an ear stalk falls over in the wind and rots on the ground, and heavy nitrogenous fertilization of wheat makes the grass grow taller and become more susceptible to this problem.

4- Areosol: Technically, an aerosol is a colloid suspensionn of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas. The word aerosol derives from the fact that matter "floating" in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid–liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). Earth's atmosphere contains aerosols of various types and concentrations, including quantities of: natural inorganic materials: dust, smoke, sea salt, water droplets. Natural organic materials: pollen, spores, bacteria. anthropogenic products of combustion such as: smoke, ashes oder dusts.

5- In the field of physics, the study of the causes of motion and changes in motion is dynamics. In other words the study of forces and why objects are in motion. Dynamics includes the study of the effect of torques on motion. These are in contrast to kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of objects without consideration of the causes leading to the motion.

5-1 Anti-dynamics: my definition to anti-dynamics is the opposite stream direction of Dynamics.

6- Merger: In the pure sense of the term, a merger happens when two firms agree to go forward as a single new company rather than remain separately owned and operated. This kind of action is more precisely referred to as a "merger of equals". The firms are often of about the same size. Both companies' stocks are surrendered and new company stock is issued in its place.

7- Vertical Integration: Vertical integration occurs when an upstream and downstream firm merge (or one acquires the other). There are several reasons for this to occur. One reason is to internalise an externality problem. A common example of such an externality is double marginalization. Double marginalization occurs when both the upstream and downstream firms have monopoly power and each firm reduces output from the competitive level to the monopoly level, creating two deadweight losses. Following a merger, the vertically integrated firm can collect one deadweight loss by setting the downstream firm's output to the competitive level. This increases profits and consumer surplus. A merger that creates a vertically integrated firm can be profitable.

8- Classical Conditioning: A process of behavior modification in which a subject learns to respond in a desired manner such that a neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly presented in association with a stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus) that elicits a natural response (the unconditioned response) until the neutral stimulus alone elicits the same response (now called the conditioned response).

9- Heterogeneous catalysts: act in a different phase than the reactants. Most heterogeneous catalysts are solids that act on substrates in aliquid or gaseous reaction mixture. Diverse mechanisms for reactions on surfaces are known, depending on how the adsorption takes place (Langmuir-Hinshelwood, Eley-Rideal, and Mars-van Krevelen).The total surface area of solid has an important effect on the reaction rate.The smaller the catalyst particle size, the larger the surface area for a given mass of particles.

10-Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology, in our concept is diversion.

11- Poisoning: In the context of biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism.

12- Etymology: is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By an extension, the term "etymology (of a word)" means the origin of a particular word.

13-Wheat Taxonomy: Carl Linnaeus recognised five species, all domesticated:
T. aestivum Bearded spring wheat
T. hybernum Beardless winter wheat
T. turgidum Rivet wheat
T. spelta Spelt wheat
T. monococcum Einkorn wheat
The development of a modern classification depended on the discovery, in the 1920s, that wheat was divided into 3 ploidy levels.

14- In genetics and biochemistry, Sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule.

15- Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus.

16- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei to determine physical and chemical properties of atoms or the molecules in which they are contained. It relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and can provide detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules.

17- Putonium Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby the paramagnetic material is only attracted when in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields. Paramagnetic materials have a relative magnetic permeability greater or equal to unity (i.e., a positive magnetic susceptibility) and hence are attracted to magnetic fields. The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. It typically requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect and modern measurements on paramagnetic materials are often conducted with a SQUIDmagnetometer.

18- The magnetic moment of a magnet is a quantity that determines the force that the magnet can exert on electric currents and the torque that a magnetic field will exert on it. A loop of electric current, a bar magnet, an electron, a molecule, and a planet all have magnetic moments.
Both the magnetic moment and magnetic field may be considered to be vectors having a magnitude and direction. The direction of the magnetic moment points from the south to north pole of a magnet. The magnetic field produced by a magnet is proportional to its magnetic moment as well. More precisely, the term magnetic moment normally refers to a system's magnetic dipole moment, which produces the first term in the multipol expansion of a general magnetic field. The dipole component of an object's magnetic field is symmetric about the direction of its magnetic dipole moment, and decreases as the inverse cube of the distance from the object

19- Chemical Shift: A spinning charge generates a magnetic field that results in a magnetic moment proportional to the spin. In the presence of an external magnetic field, two spin states exist (for a spin 1/2 nucleus): one spin up and one spin down, where one aligns with the magnetic field and the other opposes it. The difference in energy (ΔE) between the two spin states increases as the strength of the field increases, but this difference is usually very small, leading to the requirement for strong NMR magnets (1-20 T for modern NMR instruments). Irradiation of the sample with energy corresponding to the exact spin state separation of a specific set of nuclei will cause excitation of those set of nuclei in the lower energy state to the higher energy state.
For spin 1/2 nuclei, the energy difference between the two spin states at a given magnetic field strength are proportional to their magnetic moments. However, even if all protons have the same magnetic moments, they do not give resonant signals at the same field/frequency values. This is because this dependent on the electrons surrounding the proton in covalent compounds. Upon application of an external magnetic field, these electrons move in response to the field and generate local magnetic fields that oppose the much stronger applied field. This local field thus "shields" the proton from the applied magnetic field, which must therefore be increased in order to achieve resonance (absorption of rf energy). Such increments are very small, usually in parts per million (ppm). The difference between 2.3487T and 2.3488T is therefore about 42ppm. However a frequency scale is commonly used to designate the NMR signals, even though the spectrometer may operate by sweeping the magnetic field, and thus the 42 ppm is 4200 Hz for a 100 MHz reference frequency (rf).

II- Conclusion:

The half-life time of Plutonium 260 is calculated as follow:
42-1=41 therefore half-life of Pu-260 is between 41 and 40 million years.

The half-life time of Plutonium 274 is calculated as follow:
84-1= 83 therefore half-life time of Pu-274 is between 83 and 82 million years.

Note 1
This post is about The calculation of Half-life time of Plutonium.
But many readers would like to know what is the relation between Wheat and Plutonium at first place.

Wheat chromosomes also have the same number of Plutonium protons which is 94
and is calculated as follow:
Please check covalent bonding.

Apple chromosomes have the same number of Plutonium protons which is 94 
Please check archive "Higgs boson manifesto", "Apple and Plutonium", "Bio Barium production" 

Note 2
The cited Definitions above are from Wikipedia, except Anti-Dynamism.

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