Tuesday, 26 June 2012

True Bose Einstein Condensate System (Phase 1 and 2)

I- Introduction
A condensate system is a closed system where atoms are grouped in a condensate manner to form matter. The system is formed by seawater in a plastic container, and it becomes closed due the formation of layers of diamond on the top of the seawater. It is known that Diamond is a perfect insulator and a superconductor, the flow of the electrical current is indefinite; this can be explained through the same occurrence of electricity in a dynamo. The temperature of the atoms is in absolute zero (-273.15 degrees) due to the electromagnetic waves created by the magnets which are the Rugosa corals in this experiment. At this stage all atoms achieve the inertial state; means their mass and energy are close to zero, and their velocity becomes very low almost zero. The system achieves it's super fluidity where condensed matter is free to float. During the development of the system; the total mass is diminished by almost 25% due the evaporated oxygen, then most of atoms in the system are hydrogen atoms. Some of them will combine to form diesel and some others to form hydrocarbons as graphene and diamond, and most of the percentage will decay to form the (12) kinds of helium as I explained in earlier post “Higgs boson discovered, Alpha decay”. Most of the unobserved chemical elements will condensate or escape into one of the cited element for example boron will be found within the diamond atoms.  

In other hand sulfur has a great part during the evolution of the system as it is the first element to condensate around the copper wires and the metal plate.
The following equation is an approximation to represent the system before close;
System = (96.5% Sea water) + (3.5% Sea salts) + (6 Rugosa corals)
System = (96.5 % of (Oxygen + Hydrogen)) + (3.5 % of (Chlorine + Sodium + Magnesium + Sulfur + Calcium + Potassium + Bromine + Carbon)) + (6 magnets)
System = (85.84 + 10.82) + (1.94 + 1.08 + 0.1292 + 0.091 + 0.04 + 0.04 + 0.0067 + 0.0028) + (6 Magnets)
During the first day the Rugosa corals are self organized in parallel pairs. From the second day to the 4th day bubbles start to settle around the copper wires that explains the phenomenon of heat occurring within the system. 

Again in this post I would like to bring into the subject important and clear definitions to put the light on the subject, in order to get better understanding of what is a true Boson Einstein Condensate system (BECs).

II- 1 BEC System Gallery Phase1

The photographs bellow are showing BEC system, condensate matter and floating Helium.

1- Irreversible Process: all complex natural processes are irreversible. The phenomenon of irreversibility results from the fact that if a thermodynamic system, which is any system of sufficient complexity, of interacting molecules is brought from one thermodynamic state to another, the configuration or arrangement of the atoms and molecules in the system will change in a way that is not easily predictable. A certain amount of "transformation energy" will be used as the molecules of the "working body" do work on each other when they change from one state to another. During this transformation, there will be a certain amount of heat energy loss or dissipation due to intermolecular friction and collisions; energy that will not be recoverable if the process is reversed.(a)

2- In classical thermodynamics, the concept of entropy is defined phenomenologically by the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated system always increases or remains constant. Thus, entropy is also a measure of the tendency of a process, such as a chemical reaction, to be entropically favored, or to proceed in a particular direction. It determines that thermal energy always flows spontaneously from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature, in the form of heat. These processes reduce the state of order of the initial systems, and therefore entropy is an expression of disorder or randomness. This is the basis of the modern microscopic interpretation of entropy in statistical mechanics, where entropy is defined as the amount of additional information needed to specify the exact physical state of a system, given its thermodynamic specification. The second law is then a consequence of this definition and the fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics.(a)

3- Hamilton gravitational pendulum: is the value of the Hamiltonian is the total energy of the system being described. For a closed system, it is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy in the system. There is a set of differential equations known as the Hamilton equations which give the time evolution of the system. Hamiltonians can be used to describe such simple systems as a bouncing ball, a pendulum or an oscillating spring in which energy changes from kinetic to potential and back again over time. Hamiltonians can also be employed to model the energy of other more complex dynamic systems such as planetary orbits in celestial mechanics and also in quantum mechanics.(a)

4- Oscillation: is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes is used to be synonymous with "oscillation". Oscillations occur not only in physical systems but also in biological systems and in human society.(a)

5- Monomorphic oscillation: is a natural oscillation which exists in only one form typically in time. 

6- Magnetic monopole: is a hypothetical particle in particle physics that is a magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole. Or vice-versa). In more technical terms, a magnetic monopole would have a net "magnetic charge". Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably the grand unified and superstring theories, which predict their existence. Magnetism in bar magnets and electromagnets does not arise from magnetic monopoles, and in fact there is no conclusive experimental evidence that magnetic monopoles exist at all in the universe.(a)

In contradiction to what it has been said in this definition of magnet monopole, the experiment on the rugosa corals show that they are a perfect magnet monopole which work in pairs to cover north pole and south pole.

7- Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal quantity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. It is commonly represented by the Greek letter σ (sigma), but κ (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) or γ gamma, are also occasionally used. Its SI unit is Siemens per meter (Sm−1) and CGSI unit is reciprocal second (s−1).(a)

8- Semiconductor: is the electrical conductivity due to electron flow intermediate in magnitude between that of a conductor and an insulator.(a)

9-In the solid state physics field of semiconductors and insulators, the conduction band is the range of electron energies, higher than that of the valence band, sufficient to free an electron from binding with its individual atom and allow it to move freely within the atomic lattice of the material. Electrons within the conduction band are mobile charge carriers in solids, responsible for conduction of electric currents in metals and other good electrical conductor.(a)

10-Superconductivity: is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic field occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.(a)

11 - In the natural sciences an isolated system is a physical system without any external exchange – neither matter nor energy can enter or exit, but can only move around inside. Truly isolated systems cannot exist in nature, other than possibly the universe itself, and they are thus hypothetical concepts only. It obeys in particular the first of the conservation laws: its total energy - mass stays constant.
This can be contrasted with a closed system, which can exchange energy with its surroundings but not matter, and with an open system, which can exchange both matter and energy. The only truly isolated system is the universe as a whole because, for example, there is always gravity between a system with mass, and masses elsewhere. Real systems may behave nearly as an isolated system for finite (possibly very long) times.(a)

12- Insulation: A true insulator is a material that does not respond to an electric field and completely resists the flow of electric charge. In practice, however, perfect insulators do not exist. Therefore, dielectric materials with high dielectric constants are considered insulators. In insulating materials valence electrons are tightly bonded to their atoms. These materials are used in electrical equipment as insulators or insulation. Their function is to support or separate electrical conductors without allowing current through themselves. The term also refers to insulating supports that attach electric power distribution or transmission conductors to utility or transmission towers.(a)
In this experiment Diamond is formed on the surface horizontally to isolate the system.

13- Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.(a)

14- An atomic orbital: is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term may also refer to the physical region where the electron can be calculated to be, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital.

Atomic orbitals are typically categorized by n, l, and m quantum numbers, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component, respectively. Each orbital is defined by a different set of quantum numbers and contains a maximum of two electrons. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital and f orbital refer to orbitals with angular momentum quantum number l = 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. These names indicate the orbital shape and are used to describe the electron configuration. They are derived from the characteristics of their spectroscopic lines: sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental, the rest being named in alphabetical order (omitting j). (a)

15- -P- orbital: At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The p orbital is a dumbbell-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All p orbitals have l = 1, with three possible values for m (-1, 0, +1). The wave function is complex when m = 1 or m = -1.(b)

16- S orbital: At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The s orbital is a spherically-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All s orbitals have l = m = 0, but the value of n can vary. (b)

17- Bose–Einstein Condensate (BEC): is a state of matter of a dilute gas of weakly interacting bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero (0 K or −273.15 °C). Under such conditions, a large fraction of the bosons occupy the lowest quantum state of the external potential, at which point quantum effects become apparent on macroscopic scale. These effects are called macroscopic quantum phenomena. (a)

18- Thermodynamics: is the branch of natural science concerned with heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables (such as temperature, entropy, and pressure) that describe average properties of material bodies and radiation, and explains how they are related and by what laws they change with time. Thermodynamics does not describe the microscopic constituents of matter, and its laws can be derived from statistical mechanics.

Much of the empirical content of thermodynamics is contained in its four laws. The first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and thermodynamic work. The second law concerns a quantity called entropy, that expresses limitations, arising from what is known as irreversibility, on the amount of thermodynamic work that can be delivered to an external system by a thermodynamic process.(a)

19- Macroscopic quantum phenomena: usually quantum mechanics deals with matter on the scale of atoms and atomic particles. However, at low temperatures, there are phenomena that are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. The most well-known effects are super fluidity of Helium and Superconductivity which both show spectacular behavior. E.g. in both cases matter can flow with zero flow resistance. In rotating helium so-called quantum vortices are formed which are all equally strong and which can organize in beautiful patterns. A similar effect shows up in superconductors where an applied magnetic field is squeezed in bundles each containing the same amount of magnetic flux. (a)

20- In the field of physics, the study of the causes of motion and changes in motion is dynamics. In other words the study of forces and why objects are in motion. Dynamics includes the study of the effect of torques on motion. These are in contrast to kinetics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of objects without consideration of the causes leading to the motion.

Generally speaking, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter over time and study the causes of those changes. In addition, Isaac Newton established the undergirding physical laws which govern dynamics in physics. By studying his system of mechanics, dynamics can be understood. In particular dynamics is mostly related to Newton's second law of motion. However, all three laws of motion are taken into consideration, because these are interrelated in any given observation or experiment. (a)

IV- Conclusion

The advantage of this experiment is  the super fluid state of the bosonic Helium at temperatures below 2.17 K is true Bose–Einstein condensate, as it happens naturally the Helium condensates at 100%. Also we understand that Alpha particles are emitted by correlation within the closed system.
I think that my experiment could be repeated and studied in deeper way by using advanced means; this will open a new horizon to the quantum physics in particularly and to other science generally.
Rugosa corals are natural magnets with an exceptional magnetism are able to anyone interested to carry on experiments.

(a)    Wikipedia
(b)   http://chemistry.about.com/od/atomicmolecularstructure/a/porbital.htm

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